Định nghĩa Thuật ngữ và Từ điện toàn diện

Để giúp bạn dễ dàng tra cứu thông tin nhanh chóng, CiCC cung cấp công cụ tìm kiếm tiện lợi. Bạn có thể sử dụng thanh tìm kiếm để nhập từ khóa cụ thể hoặc tìm theo thứ tự chữ cái, chức năng này sẽ giúp bạn xem các thuật ngữ theo trình tự bảng chữ cái để dễ dàng tìm kiếm và tra cứu thông tin.

Chúng tôi hy vọng rằng tài nguyên từ điển và thuật ngữ này sẽ hỗ trợ bạn trong việc nắm bắt và áp dụng các khái niệm quan trọng khi thực hiện các chiến lược cải tiến và quản lý trong lĩnh vực kinh doanh của bạn.

Tất cả | # A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
There are currently 3003 Glossary and Terminology in this directory
#

1 proportion test
Compares a sample proportion to a hypothesized population proportion. It is used when dealing with categorical data and determining if there's a significant difference between observed and expected proportions. To perform this test, you'll typically use methods like z test or chi square test.
Đăng bởi: Hypothesis Test

1 sample Poisson test
Analyzes count data based on the Poisson distribution. It's used to assess whether the observed count data significantly differs from a hypothesized Poisson distribution. This test typically involves comparing observed counts with expected counts using statistical methods appropriate for Poisson distributions.
Đăng bởi: Hypothesis Test

1 sample Sign test
Determines if the median of a sample differs significantly from a known or hypothesized value. It's used when dealing with ordinal or continuous data. The test involves comparing observations to a reference value, often using the sign of the differences between observed and expected values.
Đăng bởi: Non parametric Test

1 sample t test
Determines if the mean of a single sample differs significantly from a known or hypothesized value. It's used for small sample sizes when analyzing the mean of continuous data. This test assesses whether the sample mean differs significantly from the population mean.
Đăng bởi: Hypothesis Test

1 sample Wilcoxon
Also known as the Wilcoxon signed rank test, it assesses if there's a significant difference between paired observations from a single sample. It's used when data don't meet the assumptions of parametric tests or when dealing with ordinal or continuous data.
Đăng bởi: Non parametric Test

1 sample Z test
Similar to the 1 sample t test but applicable when the sample size is large and/or the population standard deviation is known. It checks if the sample mean differs significantly from a known or hypothesized value. Commonly used for continuous data.
Đăng bởi: Hypothesis Test

1 variance test
Analyzes whether the variance of a single sample significantly differs from a hypothesized value. It's used to compare the variability within a single group or sample. This test often involves comparing the sample variance with an expected variance.
Đăng bởi: Hypothesis Test

100% inspection
Full quality inspection of all units in an inspection lot. (On the basis of DIN 55350 17)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

14 Points
14 Points: W. Edwards Deming’s 14 management practices to help organizations increase their quality and productivity: 1) create constancy of purpose for improving products and services; 2) adopt the new philosophy; 3) cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality; 4) end the practice of awarding business on price alone; instead, minimize total cost by working with a single supplier; 5) improve constantly and forever every process for planning, production and service; 6) institute training on the job; 7) adopt and institute leadership; 8) drive out fear; 9) break down barriers between staff areas; 10) eliminate slogans, exhortations and targets for the workforce; 11) eliminate numerical quotas for the workforce and numerical goals for management; 12) remove barriers that rob people of pride of workmanship, and eliminate the annual rating or merit system; 13) institute a rigorous program of education and self improvement for everyone; and 14) put everybody in the organization to work to accomplish the transformation.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

1926 Subpart C
Contains basic elements of a safety and health program in construction standards.
Đăng bởi: Regulation

1St Line Of Defence
Organization managing its risks, designing/implementing control measures.
Đăng bởi: Risk Management Responsibility

2 proportions test
Compares the proportions from two independent groups or samples. It determines if there's a significant difference between the proportions of categorical data in two groups. This test is used to assess the association or difference between two proportions.
Đăng bởi: Hypothesis Test

2 sample Poisson test
Compares count data between two independent samples based on the Poisson distribution. It assesses if the observed counts in two groups significantly differ from the expected counts. This test is used when dealing with count data from two groups.
Đăng bởi: Hypothesis Test

2 sample t test
Compares the means of two independent samples to assess if they significantly differ from each other. It's used for continuous data and determines if there's a significant difference between the means of two groups.
Đăng bởi: Hypothesis Test

2 variances test
Determines if the variances of two independent samples are significantly different from each other. This test is used to compare the variability between two groups or samples. It involves assessing if the sample variances significantly differ.
Đăng bởi: Hypothesis Test

29 Cfr 1910.120(E)(3)
Requires safety instruction for workers exposed to non toxic materials.
Đăng bởi: Regulation

2Nd Line Of Defence
Safety Centres monitoring compliance, defining standards/policies.
Đăng bởi: Compliance Oversight

3 Mu
See Muda, Mura, Muri.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

3D
Denotes three dimensional space or representation in graphics or modeling.
Đăng bởi: Concept / Technique

3D scatterplot
Represents three variables simultaneously in a graphical plot. Each axis corresponds to one variable, allowing visualization of relationships between three variables in a dataset.
Đăng bởi: Data Visualization

3G
See Gemba, Gembutsu, Gemjitsu.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

3P
3P: The production preparation process is a tool for designing lean manufacturing environments. It is a highly disciplined, standardized model that results in the development of an improved production process in which low waste levels are achieved at low capital cost.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

3Rd Line Of Defence
Independent evaluation of governance, risk management, and control.
Đăng bởi: Independent Evaluation

4M
Refers to four key factors in problem solving: Manpower, Machinery, Materials, and Methods. It's used in various industries to identify and address issues in processes.
Đăng bởi: Framework / Concept

4W3H questions
Questioning technique for problem analysis. Who? What? When? Why? How? How much or how many? How good?
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

5 Principles of Lean
Core principles focusing on waste reduction and continuous improvement in manufacturing or service industries. Principles include: Value, Value Stream, Flow, Pull, Perfection.
Đăng bởi: Lean Management

5 Principles of the Simpler Business System (SBS)
Principles emphasizing simplicity, focusing on customer value, eliminating waste, standardizing processes, and continuously improving. This system aims to streamline operations and improve efficiency.
Đăng bởi: Business Management

5 Whys
A problem solving technique involving asking "why" repeatedly to identify the root cause of an issue. It aims to uncover deeper causes behind problems rather than addressing surface level symptoms.
Đăng bởi: Problem Solving Method

5C
5C involves Cleanup, Arrange, Neatness, Discipline, and Ongoing Improvement an organizational methodology similar to the 5S system.
Đăng bởi: Organization

5S
Sort, straighten (or set in order), shine (or sanitize), standardize and sustain. See Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu, Shitsuke. The five Ss stand for order and cleanliness at the workplace (concept that originated in Japan). They also describe a procedure that can help to establish a new system for the upkeep of production means in five steps.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

5S (Principles)
Workplace organization method: Sort, Set in Order, Shine, Standardize, Sustain. Aims to improve efficiency, safety, and cleanliness in a workspace.
Đăng bởi: Workplace Methodology

5S Checklist
A tool used to ensure the proper implementation and maintenance of 5S principles in the workplace.
Đăng bởi: Tool

5W + 1H
Technique for asking Who, What, When, Where, Why, and How to gather information and analyze situations comprehensively.
Đăng bởi: Problem Solving Method

5W technique
Problem solving technique. The question “why“ is asked five times in a row in order to find the actual cause of the problem.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

6M
Represents six factors in problem solving: Manpower, Machinery, Materials, Methods, Measurement, Mother Nature (Environment).
Đăng bởi: Framework / Concept

6S
Workplace organization method: Sort, Set in Order, Shine, Standardize, Sustain, Safety. Focuses on cleanliness and organization in the workplace, including safety as a key aspect.
Đăng bởi: Workplace Methodology

6Sigma
Quality management methodology aiming for defect reduction by improving processes and output quality. Utilizes statistical methods to achieve high levels of quality.
Đăng bởi: Quality Management

7 creativity tools
See Creativity techniques.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

7 management tools
See Management tools.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

7 QC Tools
Seven basic quality control tools: Check Sheets, Pareto Charts, Cause and Effect Diagrams, Histograms, Scatter Diagrams, Control Charts, and Flowcharts. Used for process improvement and problem solving.
Đăng bởi: Quality Control Tools

7 quality management principles
You can find out more about this in the Quality management principles.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

7 quality tools
See Quality tools.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

7 Steps Of Autonomous Maintenance
A structured approach involving seven steps designed to involve operators in maintenance tasks: 1. Initial cleaning, 2. Countermeasures for contamination, 3. Standards for cleaning, 4. Autonomous inspection, 5. General inspection, 6. Standards for lubrication, 7. Autonomous lubrication.
Đăng bởi: Maintenance Process

7 Wastes
In Lean methodology, seven types of waste: Transportation, Inventory, Motion, Waiting, Overproduction, Overprocessing, Defects. Aimed to eliminate waste in processes.
Đăng bởi: Lean Management

8 Wastes
Extension of the 7 wastes in Lean, including the additional waste of Underutilized Skills or Human Potential. Focuses on eliminating non value adding activities.
Đăng bởi: Lean Management

8D
Problem solving methodology: Eight Disciplines. Used for identifying, correcting, and preventing recurring problems.
Đăng bởi: Problem Solving Method

8D report
Document within the framework of complaint management. It was standardized by VDA and is primarily used in the automotive (supplier) industry. In addition to the type of complaint, the 8D report also contains the responsibilities and corrective actions. The 8D approach to problem solving forces a systematic procedure and strict documentation of the solution steps. This enables the root causes of problems to be recognized and remedied. The process contains the following eight disciplines (8D) or steps: Form a team to solve the problem; Describe the problem; Determine interim containment actions; Determine the root causes; Plan corrective actions; Implement the actions; Prevent recurrence of problems; Show appreciation for the team‘s performance.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

A

A2LA
American Association for Laboratory Accreditation.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

A3
Paper size but also a problem solving framework that fits on an A3 sized paper. It typically includes problem identification, analysis, action planning, and review.
Đăng bởi: Problem Solving Method

A3 report
A3 report: The A3 report, developed by Toyota, is a problem solving tool to define or clarify problems, suggest solutions, and record the results of improvement activities. The report is written on ledger sized paper (11 x 17 inches) and includes text, pictures, diagrams, and charts broken into different sections, each clearly labeled and arranged in a logical flow to produce a desired outcome for a proposed process.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

A3 thinking
Problem solving approach based on the A3 format, emphasizing concise documentation and structured problem solving steps.
Đăng bởi: Problem Solving Method

AAI
Average Amount of Inspection.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

ABC
Activity based costing. User based distribution of overhead costs to the performances (reference value is the performance or the process). Tool to analyze and control overhead costs. The result makes it possible to show the relationship between resources and products in terms of economic performance.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

ABC analysis
Business management procedure to support planning and decisionmaking. Certain classification methods or schemes are used tom rate operational objects or factors according to their significance/ importance and subsequently group them into A, B and C classes. This indicates the portion of the business volume held by important customers or the percentage of high quality products on stock. The ABC analysis provides a rough idea of the ACTUAL situation and serves as a basis for more precise analyses of problematic areas.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

ABC XYZ analysis
In materials management, the XYZ analysis first means a classification of procurement objects with regard to their consumption characteristics (e.g., constant, seasonal, sporadic). In general, unlike the ABC analysis which groups according to significance, the classification here is according to other criteria (e.g., required quantitative material or resource usage: high, medium, low). In order to improve the effectiveness of an ABC analysis or a purely XYZ analysis, the two are combined into an ABC XYZ analysis. This shows that, for example, lower value articles constitute a high proportion of the inventory and at the same time demand high resource usage for their storage. The advantage of this analysis method is that it remains limited to a few dimensions and consequently makes it comparatively easy to recognize weak points that can then be considered in more detail. See ABC analysis, XYZ analysis.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Absolute
Absolute value or magnitude, disregarding direction. Used in mathematics and measurements.
Đăng bởi: Mathematical Concept

Absolute Duty
No defense available against non compliance with statutory requirements.
Đăng bởi: Occupational Health and Safety

Absolute liability
Absolute liability (also strict liability) is liability for damages that result from an allowed hazard. Liability for damages arises regardless of guilt.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Absorption
Uptake of material into the body, e.g., through skin, inhalation, ingestion, or injection.
Đăng bởi: Material Entry Routes

AC
Acceptance number.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Academic Quality Improvement Project (AQIP)
Academic Quality Improvement Project (AQIP): A forum for higher education institutions to review one another’s action projects.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Accelerated life test
Experiment to estimate the life expectancy or reliability of a product by exposing it to accelerated stress conditions.
Đăng bởi: Test / Experiment

Acceptable quality level (AQL)
In quality control, the maximum acceptable defect rate in a particular sample. Used in acceptance sampling plans.
Đăng bởi: Quality Control Measure

Acceptable risk
See Limiting risk.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Acceptance
Finding that the criteria for the acceptability of the inspection lot are fulfilled.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Acceptance inspection
Quality inspection to determine whether or not a product is acceptable as supplied or delivered. (On the basis of DIN 55350 17)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Acceptance number
Acceptance number: The maximum number of defects or defectives allowable in a sampling lot for the lot to be acceptable.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Acceptance quality limit (AQL)
Acceptance quality limit (AQL): In a continuing series of lots, a quality level that, for the purpose of sampling inspection, is the limit of a satisfactory process average.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Acceptance region plot
Graphical representation in statistical hypothesis testing showing the region of acceptance for a test statistic under a given significance level.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Visualization

Acceptance sampling
Quality control technique involving inspecting a sample from a batch to determine whether to accept or reject the entire batch based on predefined criteria.
Đăng bởi: Quality Control Method

Acceptance sampling plan
Acceptance sampling plan: A specific plan that indicates the sampling sizes and associated acceptance or nonacceptance criteria to be used. In attributes sampling, for example, there are single, double, multiple, sequential, chain and skip lot sampling plans. In variables sampling, there are single, double and sequential sampling plans. For detailed descriptions of these plans, see the standard ANSI/ISO/CiCC A3534 2 1993: Statistics—Vocabulary and Symbols—Statistical Quality Control.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Accident
An incident resulting in death, injury, loss, or damage.
Đăng bởi: General Occupational Health and Safety

Accident Prevention Plan (App)
Instructs employees on responding to common occupational hazards.
Đăng bởi: Safety Procedure

Accident Triangle
Indicates statistical relationship and severity of accidents: Small number of deaths, Medium number of injuries, Large number of near misses.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Analysis in Safety

Acclimatized
Personnel adapted to hot environments through supervised exercise programs.
Đăng bởi: Environmental Adaptation

Accountability / Accountable
Person responsible for agreed risk management standards.
Đăng bởi: Role/Responsibility

Accountable Person
Individual responsible for ensuring adequate health and safety systems within their unit or designated area.
Đăng bởi: Responsibility Role

Accreditation
Accreditation: Certification by a recognized body of the facilities, capability, objectivity, competence and integrity of an agency, service or operational group or individual to provide the specific service or operation needed. The term has multiple meanings depending on the sector. Laboratory accreditation assesses the capability of a laboratory to conduct testing, generally using standard test methods. Accreditation for healthcare organizations involves an authoritative body surveying and verifying compliance with recognized criteria, similar to certification in other sectors.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Accreditation body
Accreditation body: An organization with authority to accredit other organizations to perform services such as quality system certification.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Accuracy
Measurement concept: how close a measured value is to the true value or target.
Đăng bởi: Measurement Concept

Accuracy and precision
Accuracy refers to the closeness of measurements to the true value, while precision refers to the consistency or reproducibility of measurements.
Đăng bởi: Measurement Concepts

ACLASS Accreditation Services
ACLASS Accreditation Services: An ANSI CiCC National Accreditation Board company that provides accreditation services for: testing and calibration labs in accordance with ISO/IEC 17025; reference material producers in accordance with ISO Guide 34; and inspection bodies in accordance with ISO/IEC 17020.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Acos
In mathematics, the inverse trigonometric function for finding an angle given the cosine value.
Đăng bởi: Mathematical Function

Action limit
Maximum or minimum value that is entered into a quality control chart. Action must be taken if a characteristic value falls above or below this value. (On the basis of DIN 55350 33)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Action Plan
Detailed plan outlining specific steps to achieve a particular goal or address an issue.
Đăng bởi: Planning / Strategy

Active listening
See Indirect communication behavior.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Activity based costing
Activity based costing: An accounting system that assigns costs to a product based on the amount of resources used to design, order or make it.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Activity Boards
Visual boards used to display and manage tasks or activities in a project or workflow.
Đăng bởi: Project Management Tool

Activity Hazard Analysis (Aha)
Analyzes job hazards pre occurrence to avoid and eliminate them.
Đăng bởi: Risk Analysis

Activity network diagram
Activity network diagram: An arrow diagram used in planning.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Acute Effects
Health effects appearing quickly after exposure to a causative agent.
Đăng bởi: Health Effect Classification

Added value performance
Activity (performance) that leads to value enhancement from the customer‘s point of view. It increases the value of a product for the customer.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Additive / Synergistic
Properties of substances showing cumulative or heightened combined effects.
Đăng bởi: Substances Effect Interaction

Additive model
Statistical model assuming the combined effect of multiple factors is the sum of the effects of individual factors.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Model

Adjusted p value
Statistical technique adjusting the significance threshold in multiple hypothesis testing to account for multiple comparisons and reduce false positives.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Technique

Adjusted residuals for counts
Residuals in statistical models used to assess the difference between observed and expected counts, often in contingency tables. Adjusted for model complexity.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Adjustment
Precise adjustment (matching) of a measuring instrument by a changing intervention in the measuring instrument in order to minimize errors of measurement to an acceptable degree.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Administrative Line Of Authority
Administrative authorities responsible for smooth mining operations.
Đăng bởi: Management

Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP)
Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP): A high level automotive process for product realization, from design through production part approval.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Adverse event
Adverse event: A healthcare term for any event that is not consistent with the desired, normal or usual operation of the organization; also known as a sentinel event.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Advice
Specific practical directions for compliance without precisely outlining actions to be taken.
Đăng bởi: Compliance Guidance

Affinity Chart (diagram)
Visual tool used in brainstorming and organizing ideas by grouping related concepts or items together.
Đăng bởi: Visualization Technique

Affinity Charts
Another term for Affinity Diagrams. Used in brainstorming and problem solving to organize and categorize ideas.
Đăng bởi: Visualization Technique

Affinity Diagram
Visual brainstorming tool for organizing and grouping ideas or information based on natural relationships or associations.
Đăng bởi: Visualization Technique

AFNOR
Association Française de Normalisation. Official French authority for standardization. www.afnor.org
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Agenda 21
Development and environmental policy action plan for the 21st century. More than 170 countries adopted this guidance paper for sustainable development at the United Nations Conference on Environment & Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. Meanwhile Agenda 21 (sustainable development) is also seen as the guideline for public action.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Aggregate data
Data combined or summarized from individual level data into groups or categories for analysis or reporting.
Đăng bởi: Data Analysis

Agile
Project management methodology emphasizing adaptability, collaboration, iterative development, and customer feedback in delivering projects.
Đăng bởi: Project Management Method

Agile certification
Certification programs verifying proficiency in Agile methodologies, often covering frameworks like Scrum, Kanban, Lean, etc.
Đăng bởi: Certification Program

Agility
Agility: The ability for organizations to respond rapidly to changes in internal and external environments without losing momentum or vision.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

AIAG
Automotive Industry Action Group: An organization establishing quality standards and guidelines in the automotive industry.
Đăng bởi: Industry Standards

Air Monitoring
Identifying and measuring toxicity of air contaminants in workplaces.
Đăng bởi: Safety Measure

Akkreditierungsstellengesetz
Law from August 1, 2009 regarding the accreditation body. This regulates such aspects as the tasks and authorities of the national accreditation body and of the accreditation advisory board. It is based on Regulation (EC) No. 765/2008, which provides for the establishment of a single national accreditation body in every member state of the EU by January 1, 2010.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Alarp
As Low As Reasonably Practicable weighing risks against the trouble, time, and money needed to control them.
Đăng bởi: Risk Management

Alias
An alternative name or label used to represent a variable, command, or entity in various contexts or programming languages.
Đăng bởi: Terminology / Variable

Alignment
Alignment: Actions to ensure that a process or activity supports the organization’s strategy, goals and objectives.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

All Waiting Time
Cumulative time when equipment is not operational for various reasons.
Đăng bởi: Downtime Factor

Allergen
An antigen causing allergic reactions.
Đăng bởi: Health and Allergy Safety

Alpha
A statistical measure of internal consistency or reliability in tests or measurements, commonly used in assessing scales or instruments.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Alpha for axial points
In Design of Experiments (DOE), a measure used to evaluate the reliability of effects at axial points in a factorial experiment.
Đăng bởi: Experimental Design

Alpha risk
Maximum risk that the examining party faces if it rejects the null hypothesis Ho although it is true.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Alternate Entry
Procedures for confined spaces with controlled atmospheric hazards.
Đăng bởi: Safety Protocol

Alternative Acceptable Means Of Compliance
Alternate ways of meeting JSP 375 requirements.
Đăng bởi: Option/Compliance

Alternative hypothesis (Ha) (also called the working hypothesis)
Hypothesis that there are differences.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Alternative Path
In project management or process flow, an alternate route or sequence used when the main path encounters obstacles or changes.
Đăng bởi: Project Management Term

AM (TPM)
Autonomous Maintenance in Total Productive Maintenance (TPM): An approach where equipment operators perform routine maintenance tasks to improve equipment efficiency.
Đăng bởi: Maintenance Method

American Association for Laboratory Accreditation (A2LA)
American Association for Laboratory Accreditation (A2LA): An organization that formally recognizes another organization’s competency to perform specific tests, types of tests or calibrations.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI)
American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI): Released for the first time in October 1994, an economic indicator and cross industry measure of the satisfaction of U. S. household customers with the quality of the goods and services available to them. This includes goods and services produced in the United States and imports from foreign firms that have substantial market shares or dollar sales. CiCC is a founding sponsor of the ACSI, along with the University of Michigan Business School and the CFI Group.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
American National Standards Institute (ANSI): A private, nonprofit organization that administers and coordinates the U.S. voluntary standardization and conformity assessment system. It is the U.S. member body in the International Organization for Standardization, known as ISO.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT)
American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT): A technical society for nondestructive testing (NDT) professionals.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

American Society for Quality (ASQ)
American Society for Quality (ASQ): A professional, not for profit association that develops, promotes and applies quality related information and technology for the private sector, government and academia. ASQ serves individual and organizational members in more than 140 countries.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM): Not for profit organization that provides a forum for the development and publication of voluntary consensus standards for materials, products, systems and services.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International: Not for profit organization that provides a forum for the development and publication of voluntary consensus standards for materials, products, systems and services.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

American Society for Training and Development (ASTD)
American Society for Training and Development (ASTD): A membership organization that provides materials, education and support related to workplace learning and performance.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

American standard code for information interchange (ASCII)
American standard code for information interchange (ASCII): The basic computer characters accepted by all American machines and many foreign ones.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)
Statistical technique combining analysis of variance (ANOVA) with linear regression to assess the influence of continuous covariates on a dependent variable.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Technique

Analysis of means
Statistical method comparing means from multiple groups or treatments, often used in experimental designs with multiple factors or levels.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Technique

Analysis of means (ANOM)
Analysis of means (ANOM): A statistical procedure for troubleshooting industrial processes and analyzing the results of experimental designs with factors at fixed levels. It provides a graphical display of data. Ellis R. Ott developed the procedure in 1967 because he observed that nonstatisticians had difficulty understanding analysis of variance. Analysis of means is easier for quality practitioners to use because it is an extension of the control chart. In 1973, Edward G. Schilling further extended the concept, enabling analysis of means to be used with non normal distributions and attributes data in which the normal approximation to the binomial distribution does not apply. This is referred to as analysis of means for treatment effects.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
Statistical technique analyzing differences in means among multiple groups to assess if there are significant differences between group means.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Technique

Analysis of variance table
Table displaying the sources of variation and degrees of freedom in an ANOVA, summarizing the statistical analysis of group differences.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Tool

Analyze
Stage in process improvement methodologies (e.g., Six Sigma) involving data analysis to identify root causes and potential solutions.
Đăng bởi: Process Improvement Stage

Analyze Phase
Phase in Six Sigma or process improvement methodologies focused on data analysis and identifying areas for improvement.
Đăng bởi: Process Improvement Phase

Analyze variability
Process of investigating and understanding the variation in data or outcomes to determine sources of variability.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Analysis

Anchor column
In data tables or databases, a fixed reference column used for organizing or aligning data, often used in data manipulation or sorting.
Đăng bởi: Data Management Term

Anderson Darling statistic
A measure used to assess how well a sample's distribution fits a particular theoretical distribution, especially for testing normality.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Andon
Visual control device or signal indicating abnormalities or issues in a manufacturing process, typically used in Lean and TPM methodologies.
Đăng bởi: Lean / Manufacturing

Andon board
Andon board: A production area visual control device, such as a lighted overhead display. It communicates the status of the production system and alerts team members to emerging problems (from “andon,” a Japanese word meaning “light”).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

ANFIA
Associazione Nazionale Filiera Industria Automobilistica. Organization of the Italian automotive industry with headquarters in Turin, Italy. www.anfia.it
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Annual Objectives
Goals or targets set by an organization or individual to achieve within a year, guiding strategic planning and performance.
Đăng bởi: Strategic Planning

ANOVA
Analysis of Variance: Statistical technique to compare means among multiple groups, assessing differences and variances between group means.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Technique

ANSI
American National Standards Institute, Washington D.C., www.ansi.org
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

ANSI ACS X12
ANSI ACS X12: Transaction standards for electronic communication and shipping notification.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Answers Knowledgebase
Repository or database containing information, solutions, or resources to address various queries or issues.
Đăng bởi: Information Resource

Antilog
In mathematics, the inverse operation of taking the logarithm, determining the number whose logarithm is a given number.
Đăng bởi: Mathematical Function

AOQ
Average Outgoing Quality.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

AOQL
Average Outgoing Quality Level.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

APC
Automatic Process Control.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Appointed Person
Trained individual competent in assigned duties.
Đăng bởi: Workplace Safety Procedures

Appraisal cost
Appraisal cost: The cost of ensuring an organization is continually striving to conform to customers’ quality requirements.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Approval
Formal consent or authorization given to proceed with a task, project, or decision after review and validation.
Đăng bởi: Process Step / Approval

Approved Code Of Practice (Acop)
Code accepted by Health and Safety Commission (HSC).
Đăng bởi: Legal Compliance in Safety

APQP
Advanced Product Quality Planning: Advanced product quality planning process supporting design and development of products and services. (On the basis of IATF 16949:2016)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Ã

ÖQA
Österreichische Arbeitsgemeinschaft zur Förderung der Qualität (QUALITY AUSTRIA), Vienna, Austria. www.qualityaustria.com
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

A

AQAP
Allied Quality Assurance Publications. NATO standards for quality assurance systems. They contain requirements for companies who supply products to the military sector.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

AQL
Acceptance quality limit. See Acceptance quality limit.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Area
Measurement of the size of a two dimensional surface enclosed by a boundary or shape.
Đăng bởi: Mathematical Concept

Area graph
Data visualization graph representing data trends using filled in areas to show changes over time or between categories.
Đăng bởi: Data Visualization

Area Of Responsibility
Physical area, activities, or operational parameters an individual or organization directly controls or holds delegated authority over.
Đăng bởi: Responsibility Area

ARIS
Architecture of integrated information systems: Framework for the structuring and representation of business processes and information systems in companies.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Arithmetic mean
Simple statistical parameter (mean, average). It is formed by dividing the sum of all values in a collection by the number of values. The arithmetic mean is susceptible to “outliers“ (individual values in a sample that greatly differ from the average). Therefore it is useful to identify a sample by including further measures of locations and measures of dispersion.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

ARL
Average Run Length. Average number of samples.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Arrow diagram
Arrow diagram: A planning tool to diagram a sequence of events or activities (nodes) and their interconnectivity. It is used for scheduling and especially for determining the critical path through nodes.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

As Low As Reasonably Practicable
Level of risk reduction where further measures become disproportionate to gained benefits.
Đăng bởi: Risk Reduction Level

AS9100
AS9100: An international quality management standard for the aerospace industry published by the Society of Automotive Engineers and other organizations worldwide. It is known as EN9100 in Europe and JIS Q 9100 in Japan. The standard is controlled by the International Aerospace Quality Group (see listing).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Asap
ASAP (As Soon As Possible) a term emphasizing urgency or priority in completing tasks or actions.
Đăng bởi: Workplace

Asbestos Containing Materials
Materials containing asbestos as part of their design.
Đăng bởi: Hazardous Material Classification

Asbestos Exposure
Precautions to prevent hazards from exposure to asbestos.
Đăng bởi: Hazard Control

Asbestos Survey
Assessment to determine location, quantity, type, and condition of asbestos.
Đăng bởi: Evaluation/Assessment

Asia Pacific Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (APLAC)
Asia Pacific Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (APLAC): A cooperative of laboratory accreditation bodies.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Asims
Air Safety Information Management System.
Đăng bởi: Information Management

Asin
In mathematics, the inverse trigonometric function for finding an angle given the sine value.
Đăng bởi: Mathematical Function

Aspect ratio
Proportionate relationship between the width and height of an object or image, often expressed as a ratio.
Đăng bởi: Measurement Concept

Asphyxiation
Deprivation of oxygen leading to suffocation.
Đăng bởi: Hazard Outcome

Assembly inspection
The assembly inspection can be conducted as an in process or final inspection. See In process inspection or Final inspection.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Assessment
Formal review of a safety document or written product.
Đăng bởi: Document Evaluation

Assignable cause
Identifiable and controllable factor or circumstance causing variation or issues in a process or outcome.
Đăng bởi: Process Variation

Assn. for Quality and Participation (AQP)
Assn. for Quality and Participation (AQP): Was an independent organization until 2004, when it became an affiliate organization of CiCC. Continues today as CiCC’s Team and Workplace Excellence Forum.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Associated variables
Variables showing a statistical relationship or correlation, where changes in one variable may correspond to changes in another.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Concept

Assurance
Confidence from an objective examination over activities, control, and compliance.
Đăng bởi: Evaluation/Assessment

ASTM International
American Society for Testing and Materials, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. www.astm.org
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Atan
In mathematics, the inverse trigonometric function for finding an angle given the tangent value.
Đăng bởi: Mathematical Function

ATI
Average Total Inspected. Average number of units inspected.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Atmospheric Monitoring
Testing and analyzing hazardous atmospheres for safe entry procedures.
Đăng bởi: Safety Procedure

Atohoten Seisan
Fill up system
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Atokoutei Hikitori
Pull system
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Attribute
In quality control, a characteristic or feature of a product or process that can be evaluated as conforming or non conforming.
Đăng bởi: Quality Control Term

Attribute agreement analysis
Assessment method in quality control to measure agreement among appraisers when evaluating attributes in a product or process.
Đăng bởi: Quality Control Method

Attribute charts
Charts used in quality control to monitor the proportion of non conforming items or attributes in a sample or process.
Đăng bởi: Quality Control Tool

Attribute Data
Data type describing qualitative or categorical characteristics or attributes rather than numerical values.
Đăng bởi: Data Type

Attribute Gage Study
Quality assessment method evaluating the reliability and consistency of attribute measurement systems.
Đăng bởi: Quality Control Method

Attributes, method of
Attributes, method of: A method of measuring quality that consists of noting the presence (or absence) of some characteristic (attribute) in each of the units under consideration and counting how many units do (or do not) possess it. Example: go/no go gauging of a dimension.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Attributive data
See Qualitative data.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Audiometric Health Surveillance
Close monitoring of an individual's health related to auditory issues.
Đăng bởi: Health Monitoring

Audit
Systematic process for gathering and assessing evidence to determine compliance.
Đăng bởi: Compliance Assessment

Audit client
Party (organization or person) requesting an audit. For internal audits, the audit client can also be the organization that is being audited. External audits can be requested by other organizations (e.g., regulators, contracting parties actual or potential clients). (On the basis of ISO 19011:2018)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Audit conclusion
Result of an audit that takes into account the audit objectives and audit findings. (On the basis of ISO 19011:2018)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Audit criteria
Criteria that are used for an audit. Criteria are requirements that serve as a reference or benchmark for an audit. The objective evidence is compared to these standards (target status). Requirements may cover policies, procedures, work instructions, legal requirements or contractual obligations. (On the basis of ISO 19011:2018)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Audit evidence
Objective information in the form of records and statements of fact (actual status) which are collected during the audit and which are relevant to the audit criteria (target status). (On the basis of ISO 19011:2018)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Audit findings
Result of the comparison of the audit criteria (target status) with the audit evidence (actual status). Audit findings can either demonstrate the agreement (conformity) with the audit criteria, deviations [nonconformity], or potential improvement (conformity). (On the basis of ISO 19011:2018)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Audit leader
Auditor who leads the audit team. He or she has the overall responsibility for the audit. An audit (team) leader‘s fundamental tasks are: Audit planning and resource usage in the audit; representing the audit team with respect to the client and the auditee; forming the audit team and assigning the tasks; leading the audit team in order to gather objective audit results and draw audit conclusions; preventing or solving conflicts including stopping the audit if the auditee is not providing support; time management for the performance of the audit; and preparing the audit report and deviation reports.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Audit management
Control of the use of competent auditors in the different audit types and the review of the effectiveness of the audit system.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Audit plan
Detailed specification of the audit procedure and the activities for an audit. An audit plan is used to define the audit objectives, audit scope, auditors and areas or people to be audited. (On the basis of ISO 19011:2018)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Audit principles (principles of auditing)
Principles that constitute the basis for an effective audit. ISO 19011 lists the following seven principles: Integrity, fair presentation, due professional care, confidentiality, independence, evidence based approach and risk based approach. (On the basis of ISO 19011:2018)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Audit programme
One or more audits planned for a specific time frame with a specific purpose in mind. An audit program also includes the planning (including resources), organization and performance of audits. (On the basis of ISO 19011:2018)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Audit questioning method
Questioning technique in the audit. This refers to how the auditor engages people to talk. Open questions (WH questions: who, what, where, when, why and how questions) result in a great deal of information and are therefore preferable. Suggestive questions can interfere with the atmosphere of the talk, and alternative questions allow for incorrect answers. Closed questions limit the possible answers and the auditee cannot freely structure the answer. Chain questions are problematic. The person being interviewed is flooded with questions, looks for the simplest one and no longer responds to the others.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Audit record
Documentation from audit: e.g., completed checklists or handwritten records.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Audit report
Report that contains the outcome of an audit. As a rule, the outcome is delivered to the client after the audit. The report contains the audit objectives and audit scope, audit number with date, audited location, client, type of audit, audit basis, audit participants, audit representative, auditor, auditor team, audit findings, audit conclusions, remark about the follow up audit, summarizing assessment, signature of the lead auditor and date.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Audit scope
Description of the extent and boundaries of an audit, such as physical and virtual locations, functions organizational units, processes, activities, and time period covered. (On the basis of ISO 19011:2018)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Audit team
An audit team leader and one or more additional auditors constitute the audit team. Where necessary, they are supported by technical experts with specific knowledge in the sector or the subject. Auditors in training can also supplement the audit team. (On the basis of ISO 19011:2018)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Audit type
Character of an audit. There are many types of audits that are specific to a company. The normal distinctions are between first, second and third party audits and between system, process and product audits.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Auditee
Organization or parts thereof being audited. (On the basis of ISO 19011:2018)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Auditor
Person who conducts an audit. (On the basis of ISO 19011:2018). Average outgoing quality. Expected number of defective parts in a lot according to a sampling inspection.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Audits
Systematic examinations or reviews conducted to evaluate processes, operations, or systems for compliance, accuracy, or efficiency.
Đăng bởi: Evaluation Process

Autofill
Feature in software or applications automatically populating data into fields based on predefined patterns or previous entries.
Đăng bởi: Software Feature

Automatic Time
In manufacturing, systems or processes that trigger actions or operations based on predetermined time intervals or triggers.
Đăng bởi: Manufacturing Term

Automotive Industry Action Group (AIAG)
Automotive Industry Action Group (AIAG): A global automotive trade association with about 2,600 plus member companies that focuses on common business processes, implementation guidelines, education and training.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Autonomation
Autonomation: A form of automation in which machinery automatically inspects each item after producing it and ceases production and notifies humans if a defect is detected. Toyota expanded the meaning of jidohka to include the responsibility of all workers to function similarly—to check every item produced and, if a defect is detected, make no more until the cause of the defect has been identified and corrected. Also see “jidohka.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Autonomation (aka Jidoka)
Lean manufacturing principle where machines stop or alert when abnormalities occur, enabling operators to address issues promptly.
Đăng bởi: Lean Manufacturing

Autonomous Maintenance (Am)
AM is a TPM pillar focused on empowering operators to perform routine maintenance tasks on equipment to prevent breakdowns and defects.
Đăng bởi: Maintenance Methodology

Availability
Availability: The ability of a product to be in a state to perform its designated function under stated conditions at a given time.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Availability Rate (A)
Measures the percentage of time equipment is available for production.
Đăng bởi: Efficiency Metric

Available Process Time
The total time available for a process to operate or perform tasks within a given time frame, excluding downtime or interruptions.
Đăng bởi: Process Management

Average (aka Mean)
Statistical measure representing the central tendency of a data set, calculated by summing values and dividing by the number of observations.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Average chart
Average chart: A control chart in which the subgroup average, X bar, is used to evaluate the stability of the process level.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Average outgoing quality (AOQ)
Average outgoing quality (AOQ): The expected average quality level of an outgoing product for a given value of incoming product quality.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Average Outgoing Quality Curve
Graphical representation showing the trend of the average quality level of items leaving a process over time or quantity produced.
Đăng bởi: Quality Control Graph

Average outgoing quality limit (AOQL)
Average outgoing quality limit (AOQL): The maximum average outgoing quality over all possible levels of incoming quality for a given acceptance sampling plan and disposal specification.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Average P
In quality control, a measure estimating the average proportion of non conforming items in a sample from a process.
Đăng bởi: Quality Control Measure

Average run lengths (ARL)
Average run lengths (ARL): On a control chart, the number of subgroups expected to be inspected before a shift in magnitude takes place.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Average sample number (ASN)
Average sample number (ASN): The average number of sample units inspected per lot when reaching decisions to accept or reject.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Average total inspection (ATI)
Average total inspection (ATI): The average number of units inspected per lot, including all units in rejected lots (applicable when the procedure calls for 100% inspection of rejected lots).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Average total inspection curve
Graphical representation indicating the overall inspection rate or efficiency concerning the total items inspected over time.
Đăng bởi: Quality Control Graph

Ã

ÖVQ
Österreichische Vereinigung für Qualitätssicherung. Earlier name of the ÖQA.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

A

Awards
See EFQM Excellence Award, Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award, Ludwig Erhard Preis.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

B

Bacchi Houshiki
Batch processing, batch and queue
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Background and fill pattern color
Design or software feature allowing users to select and apply colors or patterns to fill backgrounds in visual elements or documents.
Đăng bởi: Design / Software Feature

Baka yoke
Baka yoke: A Japanese term for a manufacturing technique for preventing mistakes by designing the manufacturing process, equipment and tools so an operation literally cannot be performed incorrectly. In addition to preventing incorrect operation, the technique usually provides a warning signal of some sort for incorrect performance. Also see “poka yoke.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Balanced and unbalanced design
In experimental design or sampling, balanced design has equal sample sizes for all conditions or groups, while unbalanced design has unequal sample sizes.
Đăng bởi: Experimental Design

Balanced plant
Balanced plant: A plant in which the capacity of all resources is balanced exactly with market demand.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Balanced scorecard
Balanced scorecard: A management system that provides feedback on internal business processes and external outcomes to continuously improve strategic performance and results.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Balancing the line
Balancing the line: The process of evenly distributing the quantity and variety of work across available work time, avoiding overburden and underuse of resources. This eliminates bottlenecks and downtime, which translates into shorter flow time.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Baldrige award
Baldrige award: See “Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

BAM
Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und prüfung, Berlin. [German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing]
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Bar
A graphical representation used in charts or graphs, often represented by a rectangular shape or column to display data.
Đăng bởi: Visualization Element

Bar chart
Graphical representation of data in the form of bars.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Bartlett’s Test
Statistical test used to determine if variances in multiple groups or samples are equal, checking the homogeneity of variances assumption.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Test

Base Data Display
Presentation or representation of primary or raw data before any modification or analysis.
Đăng bởi: Data Representation

Base Design
Initial or fundamental structure or plan serving as the foundation for further development or modifications.
Đăng bởi: Design / Planning

Base Random Number
A starting point for generating a series of random numbers in statistical simulations or experiments.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Tool

Baseline measurement
Baseline measurement: The beginning point, based on an evaluation of output over a period of time, used to determine the process parameters prior to any improvement effort; the basis against which change is measured.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Baseline Measures
Initial or starting point measurements used as a reference for comparison in performance evaluation or improvement.
Đăng bởi: Performance Metrics

Basic quality concepts
Basic quality concepts: Fundamental ideas and tools that define the quality of a product or service. These include fitness for use, histograms, process capability indexes, cause and effect diagrams, failure mode and effects analysis, and control charts.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Batch and queue
Batch and queue: Producing more than one piece and then moving the pieces to the next operation before they are needed.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

BAuA
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin [German Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health], Dortmund.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Bayes' theorem
Bayes' theorem: A formula to calculate conditional probabilities by relating the conditional and marginal probability distributions of random variables.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

BCS
British Calibration Service. Also see UKAS.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Bekidouritsu
Operational availability (standard reading is: BEKIDOURITSU, not KADOURITSU), equal to the time a machine is on divided by the time it is engaged in value adding work
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Benchmarking
Benchmarking: A technique in which an organization measures its performance against that of best in class organizations, determines how those organizations achieved their performance levels and uses the information to improve its own performance. Subjects that can be benchmarked include strategies, operations and processes.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Benefit cost analysis
Benefit cost analysis: An examination of the relationship between the monetary cost of implementing an improvement and the monetary value of the benefits achieved by the improvement, both within the same time period.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Bernoulli Distribution
Discrete probability distribution describing random experiments with binary outcomes (success or failure) having constant probability.
Đăng bởi: Probability Distribution

Best practice
Best practice: A superior method or innovative practice that contributes to the improved performance of an organization, usually recognized as best by other peer organizations.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Best settings
The term is used to classify the optimal setting of the most important input variables (see also: Red X). Within the Six Sigma DMAIC cycle, this is used in the improve phase.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Best Subsets Regression
Statistical method evaluating all possible subsets of predictor variables in regression analysis to identify the best fitting model.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Technique

Beta Distribution
Continuous probability distribution used to model outcomes bounded between two values, such as time or proportions.
Đăng bởi: Probability Distribution

Beta risk
Risk that Ha is rejected and Ho is accepted, although there really is a difference.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Beta test
A product‘s last test phase before delivery to the customer or dealer. The software industry uses the beta test phase to test the stability and freedom from defects in the most economical way possible and also releases software to customers ahead of time (at no charge).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

BetrVG
Betriebsverfassungsgesetz [German Works Constitution Act]
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

BGB
Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch [German Civil Code].
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

BGBl
Bundesgesetzblatt [German Federal Law Gazette].
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Bias
Systematic error or deviation from the true value or expected value in measurements or predictions.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Bias and Linearity
Evaluation of the relationship between predicted values and observed values in statistical models. Bias refers to systematic errors, while linearity assesses the relationship's straightness.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Analysis

Big Q, little q
Big Q, little q: A term used to contrast the difference between managing for quality in all business processes and products (big Q) and managing for quality in a limited capacity—traditionally only in factory products and processes (little q).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Binomial Capability Plots
Graphical representation used in quality control to assess the capability of a process with binomial data (two possible outcomes).
Đăng bởi: Quality Control Tool

Binomial Distribution
Discrete probability distribution describing the number of successes in a fixed number of independent trials with two possible outcomes.
Đăng bởi: Probability Distribution

Bins
Categories or intervals used to group and organize data in histograms, bar charts, or other graphical representations.
Đăng bởi: Data Organization

Black Belt
Six Sigma expert who concentrates on project execution in a company. These experts are permanent members in Six Sigma projects and provide the team with knowledge and experience on the correct selection and use of the various tools and methods. As a rule, large or strategically important projects are headed by a Six Sigma Black Belt.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Black Belt (BB)
Black Belt (BB): A full time team leader responsible for implementing process improvement projects—define, measure, analyze, improve and control (DMAIC) or define, measure, analyze, design and verify (DMADV)—within a business to drive up customer satisfaction and productivity levels.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Blank Delimited
Data format or structure where fields or values are separated by blank spaces or gaps in a file or document.
Đăng bởi: Data Format

Blemish
Blemish: An imperfection severe enough to be noticed but that should not cause any real impairment with respect to intended normal or reasonably foreseeable use. Also see “defect,” “imperfection” and “nonconformity.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Block diagram
Block diagram: A diagram that shows the operation, interrelationships and interdependencies of components in a system. Boxes, or blocks (hence the name), represent the components; connecting lines between the blocks represent interfaces. There are two types of block diagrams: a functional block diagram, which shows a system’s subsystems and lower level products and their interrelationships and which interfaces with other systems; and a reliability block diagram, which is similar to the functional block diagram but is modified to emphasize those aspects influencing reliability.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Blocks
In experimental design, a division of experimental units into groups to minimize variability from external factors.
Đăng bởi: Experimental Design

Bloodborne Pathogens
Infectious microorganisms in human blood causing diseases.
Đăng bởi: Health Hazard

BNetzA
Bundesnetzagentur für Elektrizität, Gas, Telekommunikation, Post und Eisenbahnen, Bonn. [German Federal Network Agency for Electricity, Gas, Telecommunications, Post and Railway]. The organization was established on January 1, 1998 as regulators for telecommunication and post (RegTP) and renamed the Bundesnetzagentur [German Federal Network Agency] on July 13, 2005. It is the regulatory body responsible for maintaining and promoting competition in network markets. www.bundesnetzagentur.de
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Board of Standards Review (BSR)
Board of Standards Review (BSR): An American National Standards Institute board responsible for the approval and withdrawal of American National Standards.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Body of knowledge (BoK)
Body of knowledge (BoK): The prescribed aggregation of knowledge in a particular area an individual is expected to have mastered to be considered or certified as a practitioner.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Bonus malus system
System that rewards good performances (bonus) and penalizes poor performances (malus). This system can also be associated with financial quantities.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Bottom line
Bottom line: The essential or salient point; the primary or most important consideration. Also, the line at the bottom of a financial report that shows the net profit or loss.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Box and whisker plot
Box and whisker plot: A plot used in exploratory data analysis to picture the centering and variation of the data based on quartiles. After the data are ordered, the 25th, 50th and 75th percentiles are identified. The box contains the data between the 25th and 75th percentiles.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Box plot
Graphical evaluation of the dispersion and distribution of data. It must be noted that the data are divided into four quartiles, i.e., 25% of the data is combined into one quartile. The gray box (see graphic) corresponds to the area in which the middle 50% of the data lies. The box plot representation shows the median and not the arithmetic mean. The antennas above and below the box represent the data values that lie outside the box in the 1st and 4th quartile.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

BPM
See Business Process Management.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

BPO
Business Process Optimization.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

BPR
See Business Process Reengineering.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Brainstorming
Brainstorming: A technique teams use to generate ideas on a particular subject. Each person on the team is asked to think creatively and write down as many ideas as possible. The ideas are not discussed or reviewed until after the brainstorming session.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Breakdown
Periods when equipment fails or stops functioning.
Đăng bởi: Downtime Factor

Breakthrough improvement
Breakthrough improvement: A dynamic, decisive movement to a new, higher level of performance.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Breakthrough strategy
See DMAIC.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

BS
British Standard.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

BS 7799
BS 7799: A standard written by British commerce, government and industry stakeholders to address information security management issues, including fraud, industrial espionage and physical disaster. Today, there are three parts to the standard. Part one became ISO/IEC 17799, Information technology—Code of practice for information security management. BS 7799 Part 2 focuses on information security management systems. BS 7799 Part 3 covers risk analysis and management.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

BSC
See Balanced Scorecard.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

BSI
1. Bundesamt für Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik [German Federal Office for Information Security], Bonn. www.bsi.bund.de; 2. British Standards Institution, London. www. bsigroup.com
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Business Excellence
See Excellence models, Total Quality Management.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Business process
Process that is determined by the customers‘ specific requirements and that produces a benefit (value creation) for both the customer and the organization providing the product or service. A business process is consequently a procedure for solving customer problems.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Business Process Management
Planning, organization and monitoring of a company‘s processes in terms of quality, time, costs and customer satisfaction. The objective of this management concept is to optimize and automate business processes to a large extent.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Business Process Reengineering
Concept to refocus companies: Fundamental change in the company sequences with the objective of completely restructuring all relevant processes. The processes should be redesigned in order to achieve the greatest possible efficiency.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Business process reengineering (BPR)
Business process reengineering (BPR): The concentration on improving business processes to deliver outputs that will achieve results meeting the firm’s objectives, priorities and mission.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Business Reengineering
See Business Process Reengineering.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

C

C chart
C chart: See “count chart.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

CAD
Computer Aided Design.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

CAE
Computer Aided Engineering.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Calibration
Calibration: The comparison of a measurement instrument or system of unverified accuracy to a measurement instrument or system of known accuracy to detect any variation from the required performance specification.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Calibration interval
Time between two calibrations.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

CAM
Computer Aided Manufacturing
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Cando System
CANDO is an acronym developed by Henry Ford, resembling principles akin to the 5S methodology for workplace efficiency. Ford's CANDO system focuses on Cleaning up, Arranging, Neatness, Discipline, and Ongoing improvement.
Đăng bởi: Historical Context

CAP
Computer Aided Planning
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Capability
Capability: The total range of inherent variation in a stable process determined by using data from control charts.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Capability maturity model (CMM)
Capability maturity model (CMM): A framework that describes the key elements of an effective software process. It’s an evolutionary improvement path from an immature process to a mature, disciplined process. The CMM covers practices for planning, engineering and managing software development and maintenance to improve the ability of organizations to meet goals for cost, schedule, functionality and product quality.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Capacity constraint resources
Capacity constraint resources: A series of non bottlenecks (based on the sequence in which jobs are performed) that can act as a constraint.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

CAQ
Computer Aided Quality Assurance: This term is used for the computer supported planning and performance of actions related to quality in a company.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Carcinogen
Substance causing cancer.
Đăng bởi: Hazardous Material Safety

Carcinogenic
Potential of a substance or agent to be a carcinogen.
Đăng bởi: Hazard Identification in Safety

Cascade process
Breaking down objectives in an organizational unit. Performance indicators and performance figures are defined that can be measured and influenced for the particular unit and that ultimately are linked to the objectives of the company as a whole.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Cascading
Cascading: The continuing flow of the quality message down to, not through, the next level of supervision until it reaches all workers. Also see “deployment.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

CASCO
CASCO: An International Organization for Standardization policy development committee for conformity assessment.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

CASE
Computer Aided Software Engineering.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Cause
Cause: An identified reason for the presence of a defect or problem.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Cause analysis
Cause analysis: Another term referring to root cause analysis (see listing).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Cause and effect diagram
Cause and effect diagram: A tool for analyzing process dispersion. It is also referred to as the “Ishikawa diagram,” because Kaoru Ishikawa developed it, and the “fishbone diagram,” because the complete diagram resembles a fish skeleton. The diagram illustrates the main causes and subcauses leading to an effect (symptom). The cause and effect diagram is one of the “seven tools of quality” (see listing).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

CBT
Computer Based Training: Educational or training programs delivered via computer technology or digital platforms.
Đăng bởi: Training Method

CCFA
Comité des Constructeurs Français d‘Automobiles: Association of the French automotive industry, Paris. www.ccfa.fr
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

CCpk
Process capability index measuring how well a process fits the specifications, considering both centering and variation.
Đăng bởi: Process Capability

CE
Communauté Européenne. See CE mark.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

CE mark
CE (Communauté Européenne) is the French term for the European Community. The CE mark is an expression of the conformance with EU directives. The objective of the CE mark is to show that a product conforms to the general protection objectives stipulated in the EU directives. The CE mark is consequently a symbol for free trade of technical products in the European Union.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

CE marking
CE marking: Formerly known as the CE Mark, the Conformité Européene (CE) Mark is a mandatory conformity marking for certain products sold within the European Economic Area (EEA) since 1985. The CE marking is also found on products sold outside the EEA that are manufactured in or designed to be sold in the EEA. This makes the CE marking recognizable worldwide even to those unfamiliar with the EEA.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

CEDAC
Cause Effect Diagram with the Addition of Cards. Cause effect diagram that uses cards or post its (for the causes). See also Ishikawa diagram.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Ceiling
Upper limit or maximum value in statistical analysis or data representation.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Cell
Cell: An arrangement of people, machines, materials and equipment in which the processing steps are placed next to each other in sequential order and through which parts are processed in a continuous flow. The most common cell layout is a U shape.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Cellular manufacturing
Cellular manufacturing: Arranging machines in the correct process sequence, with operators remaining within the cell and materials presented to them from outside.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Cellularization
Organizational or operational restructuring into autonomous units or cells for increased efficiency and responsiveness.
Đăng bởi: Organizational Method

CEN
Comité Européen de Normalisation. European Committee for Standardization. Its primary job is to compose European standards (EN).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

CENELEC
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique, Brussels, Belgium
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Censoring
Statistical technique where certain data points are known but not fully observed or recorded in a study, often used in survival analysis.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Analysis

Center line
In control charts, a reference line representing the mean, median, or target value, indicating the center or expected value of a process.
Đăng bởi: Quality Control Measure

Centerline
Centerline: A line on a graph that represents the overall average (mean) operating level of the process.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Central Composite Design
Experimental design technique used in response surface methodology, involving factorial points and center points to model complex processes.
Đăng bởi: Experimental Design

Central Limit Theorem
Statistical theory stating that the sampling distribution of a sample mean tends to be normally distributed regardless of the population's distribution.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Theory

Central tendency
Central tendency: The tendency of data gathered from a process to cluster toward a middle value somewhere between the high and low values of measurement.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Centroid of a Cluster
Geometric center or average position of data points in a cluster or group, used in cluster analysis or classification.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Analysis

CEPT
Conférence Européenne des Administrations des Postes et des Télécommunications: Coordinating body for telecommunications and postal organizations from 48 European states. The European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations was established in 1959 and developed recommendations for telecommunication until 1988 (focus on services and networks). When the ETSI was founded in 1988 it took over many of these functions.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Certificate
Document that is issued in accordance with the rules of a certification system in order to engender confidence that a uniquely described product or a uniquely described process conforms to a specified standard or to another normative document. (DGQ Volume 11 04:2009)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Certification
Certification: The result of a person meeting the established criteria set by a certificate granting organization.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Certification body
Company that carries out certifications.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Certified biomedical auditor (CBA)
Certified biomedical auditor (CBA): An CiCC certification.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Certified calibration technician (CCT)
Certified calibration technician (CCT): An CiCC certification.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Certified HACCP auditor (CHA)
Certified HACCP auditor (CHA): An CiCC certification.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Certified manager of quality/organizational excellence (CMQ/OE)
Certified manager of quality/organizational excellence (CMQ/OE): An CiCC certification; formerly certified quality manager (CQM).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Certified pharmaceutical good manufacturing practices (GMP) professional
Certified pharmaceutical good manufacturing practices (GMP) professional: An CiCC certification.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Certified quality auditor (CQA)
Certified quality auditor (CQA): An CiCC certification.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Certified quality engineer (CQE)
Certified quality engineer (CQE): An CiCC certification.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Certified quality improvement associate (CQIA)
Certified quality improvement associate (CQIA): An CiCC certification.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Certified quality inspector (CQI)
Certified quality inspector (CQI): An CiCC certification; formerly certified mechanical inspector (CMI).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Certified quality process analyst (CQPA)
Certified quality process analyst (CQPA): An CiCC certification.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Certified quality technician (CQT)
Certified quality technician (CQT): An CiCC certification.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Certified reliability engineer (CRE)
Certified reliability engineer (CRE): An CiCC certification.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Certified Six Sigma Black Belt (CSSBB)
Certified Six Sigma Black Belt (CSSBB): An CiCC certification.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Certified Six Sigma Green Belt (CSSGB)
Certified Six Sigma Green Belt (CSSGB): An CiCC certification.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Certified Six Sigma Master Black Belt (CSSMBB)
Certified Six Sigma Master Black Belt (CSSMBB): An CiCC certification.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Certified Six Sigma Yellow Belt (CSSYB)
Certified Six Sigma Yellow Belt (CSSYB): An CiCC certification.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Certified software quality engineer (CSQE)
Certified software quality engineer (CSQE): An CiCC certification.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Certified supplier quality professional (CSQP)
Certified supplier quality professional (CSQP): An CiCC certification.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Chain reaction
Chain reaction: A chain of events described by W. Edwards Deming: improve quality, decrease costs, improve productivity, increase market with better quality and lower price, stay in business, provide jobs and provide more jobs.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Chain sampling plan
Chain sampling plan: In acceptance sampling, a plan in which the criteria for acceptance and rejection apply to the cumulative sampling results for the current lot and one or more immediately preceding lots.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Chaku Chaku
Lean manufacturing method where each workstation is set up to automatically receive, process, and pass on the next part without manual handling.
Đăng bởi: Lean Manufacturing

Chaku Chaku Rain
CHAKU CHAKU (pronounced tcha koo tcha koo) line, load load line, work cell which normally allows one operator to merely transfer (i.e. load) finished pieces from machine to machine, returning to the first machine within the machine cycle time of the first machine
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Champion
Champion: A business leader or senior manager who ensures resources are available for training and projects, and who is involved in periodic project reviews; also, an executive who supports and addresses Six Sigma organizational issues.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Chance Causes
In statistical process control, random or natural variations causing minor fluctuations within the normal operating range of a process.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Process

Change agent
Change agent: An individual from within or outside an organization who facilitates change in the organization; might be the initiator of the change effort, but not necessarily.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Change management
Change management: The process, tools and techniques used to manage change, including planning, validating and implementing change, and verifying effectiveness of change.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Change Owner
Person initiating and accountable for implementing a change project/programme safely.
Đăng bởi: Change Management

Change request
A request for a change in projects, particularly in software projects: formalized request for a change in the properties of a certain product characteristic.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Changeover
Changeover: A process in which a production device is assigned to perform a different operation or a machine is set up to make a different part—for example, a new plastic resin and new mold in an injection molding machine.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Changeover time
Changeover time: The time required to modify a system or workstation, usually including teardown time for the existing condition and setup time for the new condition.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Character Graphs
Graphs used in statistical analysis to display or visualize categorical or qualitative data characteristics.
Đăng bởi: Data Visualization

Characteristic
Characteristic: The factors, elements or measures that define and differentiate a process, function, product, service or other entity.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Characteristic value
Qualitative or quantitative values of a characteristic. (On the basis of DIN 55350 12)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Chart
Chart: A tool for organizing, summarizing and depicting data in graphic form.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Charter
Charter: A written commitment approved by management stating the scope of authority for an improvement project or team.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Check sheet
Check sheet: A simple data recording device. The check sheet is custom designed by the user, which allows him or her to readily interpret the results. The check sheet is one of the “seven tools of quality” (see listing). Check sheets are often confused with checklists (see listing).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Checklist
Checklist: A tool for ensuring all important steps or actions in an operation have been taken. Checklists contain items important or relevant to an issue or situation. Checklists are often confused with check sheets (see listing).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Checksheet
Data collection sheet which simplifies the systematic acquisition of data and recognition of principles. See also: Inspection list.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Chemical Exposure
Identifying and preventing hazardous chemical exposure.
Đăng bởi: Hazard Control

Chemical Hazards
Negative effects of chemicals causing long term health issues.
Đăng bởi: Health Hazard

Chi Square Distribution
Continuous probability distribution used to model the sum of squared standard normal deviates, commonly used in hypothesis testing.
Đăng bởi: Probability Distribution

Chi Square Test
Statistical test comparing observed frequencies with expected frequencies to assess the independence or association between variables.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Test

Chief Environment And Safety Officer
Role under HSWA74 providing advice on HS&EP compliance within Defence, ensuring safety management.
Đăng bởi: HS&EP Compliance Advisor

Chisquare Statistic
Statistical measure calculated in a Chi Square test representing the difference between observed and expected frequencies.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Chousei
Adjustment, changeover final adjustment
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Chronic Effect
Health effects appearing after prolonged exposure to a causative agent.
Đăng bởi: Health Effect Classification

CI
1. Corporate Identity (totality of a company‘s characteristics). 2. See Continual Improvement.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

CiCC
American Society for Quality, Milwaukee, U.S.A., www.CiCC.org
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

CiCCC
American Society for Quality Control. Earlier name of the CiCC
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

CIM
Computer Integrated Manufacturing.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

CIP
Continual (or Continuous) Improvement Process.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

CIP workshop
Kaizen tool used for complex, extensive, continuous improvement processes with higher priority in terms of time. The CIP workshop is initiated based on a current problem which needs to be solved, while quality circles are held regularly in order to achieve improvement.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Class
Sub domain of characteristic values that results from classification.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Classification
A characteristic’s range of values is divided into sub areas (classes). These are mutually exclusive and completely cover the range of values. (On the basis of DIN 55350 23)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Classification of defects
Classification of defects: The listing of possible defects of a unit, classified according to their seriousness. Note: Commonly used classifications: class A, class B, class C, class D; or critical, major, minor and incidental; or critical, major and minor. Definitions of these classifications require careful preparation and tailoring to the product(s) being sampled to ensure accurate assignment of a defect to the proper classification. A separate acceptance sampling plan is generally applied to each class of defects.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Cleaning
Time allocated for cleaning and maintaining equipment.
Đăng bởi: Downtime Factor

Cleaning, Inspection, Lubrication (Cil)
CIL is a fundamental aspect of AM in TPM, involving regular cleaning, thorough inspection, and proper lubrication of equipment to maintain optimal functionality and prevent breakdowns.
Đăng bởi: Maintenance Practices

Closed loop corrective action (CLCA)
Closed loop corrective action (CLCA): A sophisticated engineering system to document, verify and diagnose failures, recommend and initiate corrective action, provide follow up and maintain comprehensive statistical records.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Closing talk
The closing talk or closing meeting takes place after the performance of an audit and summarizes the audit results (including the audit conclusions). This talk covers the following contents: Summary of the findings; Remark on the audit‘s sampling character; Mention of positive findings; Observations, recommendations and deviations; Clarification of misunderstandings; Documentation of any differences of opinion; Audit conclusions; And, where applicable, agreements, discussion regarding the type, scheduling, responsibilities for corrective and improvement actions.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

CM
Capability of machine. Machine capability index. It describes shortterm dispersion of the examined quantitative characteristic.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

CMC
CEN Management Centre
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

CMK
Machine capability index. It describes the short term variability of the examined quantitative characteristic and its distance to the specification limit.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

CMM/CMMI
Capability Maturity Model. Process model for judging the quality (“maturity“) of a company‘s software process and to determine improvement activities. At the end of 2003, CMM was replaced by Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI for short) in order to prevent uncontrolled growth of diverse CM models and to create a uniform model.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Coaching
Professional support (motivation) in a work context: Consultation related to people, processes and organizations with the objective of effective task fulfillment through such measures as strengthening self reflection.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Code of conduct
Code of conduct: Expectations of behavior mutually agreed on by a team.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Code Of Practice
Set of rules for practical guidance, not legally binding but may be used in evidence.
Đăng bởi: Safety Guidelines

Coded and Uncoded Units
In experimental design, coded units refer to standardized variables, while uncoded units refer to raw or unstandardized variables.
Đăng bởi: Experimental Design

Coefficient of Determination
Statistical measure indicating the proportion of variation in a dependent variable explained by an independent variable in regression analysis.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Coefficient of Multiple Correlation
Statistical measure assessing the strength and direction of the linear relationship between multiple independent variables and a dependent variable.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Coefficient of Variation
Statistical measure representing the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean, expressing relative variability in a data set.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Coefficient of Variation (Taguchi)
Quality measure in Taguchi methods, indicating the signal to noise ratio relative to variation in a process.
Đăng bởi: Quality Measure

Coefficients
In statistical models or equations, numeric values representing the relative weights or contributions of variables in the model.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Coefficients PLS
Partial Least Squares regression coefficients, representing the relationships between predictor and response variables in PLS regression.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Color Guide
A reference for designated colors used in workplace signage, floor marking, or safety procedures.
Đăng bởi: Safety

Columns
In data tables or databases, vertical arrangements of data representing variables, attributes, or categories.
Đăng bởi: Data Structure

Comah
Control of Major Accident Hazard Regulations.
Đăng bởi: Hazard Regulation and Management

Combination
Arrangement or selection of items or elements without regard to the order, often used in permutation and combination calculations.
Đăng bởi: Mathematical Concept

Combined audit
Audit of two or more management systems of different disciplines (such as quality and environmental management) at a single auditee. (On the basis of ISO 19011:2018)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Command Language
Specific syntax or set of rules used in programming or software to execute commands or operations.
Đăng bởi: Programming / Software

Command Line Editor
Text based interface allowing users to interact with software or systems by typing commands into a terminal or console.
Đăng bởi: Software Interface

Commander
Person responsible for planning and ensuring personnel safety.
Đăng bởi: Role/Responsibility

Commanding Officer
Service person in charge of a specific unit or site.
Đăng bởi: Role/Responsibility

Comment Symbol
In programming or scripting languages, a character or sequence used to indicate comments or annotations in code for clarification or documentation.
Đăng bởi: Programming Concept

Common Cause
In quality control, variations arising from inherent factors or normal fluctuations within a process that are predictable and inherent to the system.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Process

Common Cause Failure (Ccf)
Failure of multiple system elements due to a single cause.
Đăng bởi: System Failure Analysis

Common causes
Common causes: Causes of variation that are inherent in a process over time. They affect every outcome of the process and everyone working in the process. Also see “special causes.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Common Mode Failure (Cmf)
Failure of multiple system elements in the same manner.
Đăng bởi: System Failure Modes

Company Crisis Management
Organizational strategies or protocols to effectively manage and respond to crises or emergencies affecting a company.
Đăng bởi: Crisis Management

Company culture
Company culture: A system of values, beliefs and behaviors inherent in a company. To optimize business performance, top management must define and create the necessary culture.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Comparison Values for Median Polish
Values used in median polish method to compare row and column effects in an analysis of variance (ANOVA) table.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Analysis

Compatibility
Suitability of different units to be used together under specific conditions for a stipulated purpose in order to fulfill the requirements that apply them.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Competence
Demonstrated ability to apply knowledge and skills in order to achieve a result. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015 and ISO 19011:2018)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Competent Person
A knowledgeable and trained individual capable of identifying and dealing with safety risks.
Đăng bởi: Safety Competency and Expertise

Complaint
Dissatisfaction expressed by the customer vis à vis an organization. Dissatisfaction may relate to a product, service or complaintshandling process, if a response or resolution is expected from the organization. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Complaint management
In the framework of customer focus, this term is used for all planning, strategies and actions that use the dissatisfaction of customers as articulated and documented in complaints to better achieve the corporate goals. Consequently, the reduction of stated demands for compensation is not the first objective; instead, the primary goal is the conversion of justified complaints into improvements in products, processes and services.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Complaint tracking
Complaint tracking: Collecting data, disseminating them to appropriate persons for resolution, monitoring complaint resolution progress and communicating results.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Compliance
Compliance: The state of an organization that meets prescribed specifications, contract terms, regulations or standards.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Compliance audit
Examination by internal or external auditors to ascertain whether or not legal requirements are fulfilled in a company. For example, this includes laws, ordinances and licensing notices, as well as internal standards such as group guidelines. Particularly statutory or regulatory specifications are selected and audited point by point.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Components DOE
Factors or variables manipulated in a Design of Experiments (DOE) study, influencing the outcome or response variable.
Đăng bởi: Experimental Design

Composite Desirability
Statistical measure combining multiple factors or objectives into a single composite score, often used in optimization problems.
Đăng bởi: Optimization Technique

Computer aided design (CAD)
Computer aided design (CAD): A type of software used by architects, engineers, drafters and artists to create precision drawings or technical illustrations. CAD software can be used to create 2 D drawings or 3 D models.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Computer aided engineering (CAE)
Computer aided engineering (CAE): A broad term used by the electronic design automation industry for the use of computers to design, analyze and manufacture products and processes. CAE includes CAD (see listing) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM), which is the use of computers for managing manufacturing processes.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Concatenate
Concatenation operation in programming or data processing, combining or linking strings or values together.
Đăng bởi: Data Processing

Concession
Permission to use or release a product (or service) that does not conform to the specified requirements. A concession is generally limited to the delivery of a product or service that has nonconforming characteristics for an agreed time or for an agreed quantity within specified limits. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Concordant Pair
In statistics, pairs of observations having the same order of ranking or scoring in two related variables.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Concrete & Masonry
Training for workers dealing with masonry and concrete.
Đăng bởi: Training

Concurrent engineering (CE)
Concurrent engineering (CE): A way to reduce cost, improve quality and shrink cycle time by simplifying a product’s system of life cycle tasks during the early concept stages.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Condition
All characteristics and characteristic values of a unit. Standard DIN 55350 11 also speaks of inherent characteristics in this connection. This means characteristics inherent in the unit, as compared to characteristics that are assigned to a unit. Taking a cabinet as an example, the size and design of the door panels are inherent characteristics while the price and delivery data are assigned characteristics. Sometimes the word “nature“ is used in this context. (On the basis of DIN 55350 11)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Confidence Bands
Graphical representation showing the range or interval within which a parameter or statistic is likely to fall with a specified level of confidence.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Visualization

Confidence interval
Estimated interval that is calculated from sampling results. The estimated interval includes the unknown true value of the parameter that is to be estimated at the stipulated confidence level. (On the basis of DGQ Volume 11 04:2012)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Confidence level
For the calculation of a confidence interval or a statistical tolerance interval of desired and stipulated lower limiting value of the probability. (On the basis of DGQ Volume 11 04:2012)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Confidence Limits
Upper and lower bounds defining a confidence interval, indicating the range within which the true value is likely to lie.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Configuration
Physical and functional characteristics of products or services that are interrelated. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Configuration management
Coordinated activities for configuration direction and control. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Confined Space Atmospheric Hazards
Hazards in confined spaces interfering with oxygen use.
Đăng bởi: Hazard Outcome

Confined Space Permit System
Permit requirements for confined spaces with hazardous conditions.
Đăng bởi: Safety Protocol

Confined Spaces
Dangerous areas with limited entry/exit and various hazards.
Đăng bởi: Hazard Outcome

Conflict resolution
Conflict resolution: The management of a conflict situation to arrive at a resolution satisfactory to all parties.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Conformance
Conformance: An affirmative indication or judgment that a product or service has met the requirements of a relevant specification, contract or regulation.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Conformitè Europëenne Mark (CE Mark)
Conformitè Europëenne Mark (CE Mark): A European Union (EU) conformity mark for regulating the goods sold within its borders. The mark represents a manufacturer’ s declaration that products comply with EU New Approach Directives. These directives apply to any country that sells products within the EU.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Conformity
A requirement is fulfilled. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Conformity assessment
Conformity assessment: All activities concerned with determining that relevant requirements in standards or regulations are fulfilled, including sampling, testing, inspection, certification, management system assessment and registration, accreditation of the competence of those activities and recognition of an accreditation program’s capability.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Connect Line
Graphical element or line connecting data points or elements in a visualization, often used to show relationships or trends.
Đăng bởi: Data Visualization

Connection Function
In mathematics or networking, a function representing relationships or links between variables, nodes, or elements.
Đăng bởi: Mathematical / Networking

CONQ
Cost of Non Quality: A metric representing the costs incurred due to poor quality or errors in a product or process.
Đăng bởi: Quality Measurement

Consensus
Consensus: A state in which all the members of a group support an action or decision, even if some of them don’t fully agree with it.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Constants
Fixed values or parameters used in mathematical equations or programming that remain unchanged throughout the process.
Đăng bởi: Mathematical Concept

Constraint
Constraint: Anything that limits a system from achieving higher performance or throughput; also, the bottleneck that most severely limits the organization’s ability to achieve higher performance relative to its purpose or goal.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Constraints management
Constraints management: See “theory of constraints.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Consultant
Consultant: An individual who has experience and expertise in applying tools and techniques to resolve process problems and who can advise and facilitate an organization’ s improvement efforts.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Consumer
Consumer: The external customer to whom a product or service is ultimately delivered; also called end user.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Consumer's risk
Consumer's risk: Pertains to sampling and the potential risk that bad products will be accepted and shipped to the consumer.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Context of the organization
Environment and framework conditions of the organization. The context of an organization combines internal and external issues. The organization should be aware of its environment and observe it. Changes in the environment may affect the organization and its ability to provide products and services conforming to requirements and achieving objectives. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Contingency Table with CA
A table in statistical analysis displaying the frequencies or counts of different variables to analyze relationships or associations.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Analysis

Continual Improvement
Recurring activities in order to increase the ability to fulfill requirements. It is a continual process to set objectives and find opportunities for improvement. The use of audit findings, audit conclusions, data analyses, management review or other means by management usually necessitate corrective or preventive actions. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Continuation Symbol
A symbol or character indicating that a statement or line of code continues onto the next line, often used in programming or scripting.
Đăng bởi: Programming Symbol

Continuous characteristic
Quantitative characteristic. A continuous or also continual characteristic can assume an infinite number of different values within its range of values. (On the basis of DIN 55350 12)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Continuous data
See Quantitative data.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Continuous Distribution
Probability distribution describing random variables that can take any value within a range, such as normal, exponential, etc.
Đăng bởi: Probability Distribution

Continuous Flow
Producing and moving one item through a series of steps continuously, often termed one piece flow.
Đăng bởi: Production Method

Continuous flow production
Continuous flow production: A method in which items are produced and moved from one processing step to the next, one piece at a time. Each process makes only the one piece that the next process needs, and the transfer batch size is one. Also referred to as one piece flow and single piece flow.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Continuous Improvement
Ongoing process or approach focusing on making incremental or continuous enhancements to processes, products, or services.
Đăng bởi: Business Strategy

Continuous improvement (CI)
Continuous improvement (CI): Sometimes called continual improvement. The ongoing improvement of products, services or processes through incremental and breakthrough improvements.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Continuous quality improvement (CQI)
Continuous quality improvement (CQI): A philosophy and attitude for analyzing capabilities and processes and improving them repeatedly to achieve customer satisfaction.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Continuous sampling plan
Continuous sampling plan: In acceptance sampling, a plan, intended for application to a continuous flow of individual units of product, that involves acceptance and rejection on a unit by unit basis and employs alternate periods of 100% inspection and sampling. The relative amount of 100% inspection depends on the quality of submitted product. Continuous sampling plans usually require that each t period of 100% inspection be continued until a specified number, i, of consecutively inspected units are found clear of defects. Note: For single level continuous sampling plans, a single d sampling rate (for example, inspect one unit in five or one unit in 10) is used during sampling. For multilevel continuous sampling plans, two or more sampling rates can be used. The rate at any time depends on the quality of submitted product.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Contour Plot
Graphical representation showing the 3D surface or topography using contours or lines of equal values, often used in data visualization.
Đăng bởi: Data Visualization

Contract
Obligating or binding agreement. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Control
In quality management or process improvement, actions taken to ensure processes meet desired objectives or standards.
Đăng bởi: Quality Management

Control chart
Control chart: A time sequenced chart with upper and lower control limits on which values of some statistical measure for a series of samples or subgroups are plotted. The chart frequently shows a central line to help detect a trend of plotted values toward either control limit.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Control Charts
See Control Chart.
Đăng bởi: Quality Control Tool

Control Factors Taguchi
Factors in Taguchi methods used to improve process stability or performance by minimizing sensitivity to variations.
Đăng bởi: Quality Improvement

Control Limit
Asbestos concentration limit in the atmosphere.
Đăng bởi: Standard/Regulation

Control limits
Control limits: The natural boundaries of a process within specified confidence levels, expressed as the upper control limit (UCL) and the lower control limit (LCL).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Control Measures
Actions taken to reduce the possibility of a risk arising or lessen its effects.
Đăng bởi: Risk Management

Control of documented information
Ensures that documented information is available and suitable for use where and when needed and is adequately protected. Includes the distribution, access, retrieval, use, storage, preservation, change management, retention and disposition of documented information. Documented information retained as conformity evidence shall be protected from unintended changes. In addition, documented information of external origin needs to be considered. (See also ISO 9001:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Control of inspection, measuring and testing equipment
Totality of systematic calibration, adjustment and verification activities as well as the maintenance of inspection, measuring and test equipment and its tools. (DGQ Volume 11 04:2009)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Control plan
See Production control plan.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Control plan (CP)
Control plan (CP): Written descriptions of the systems for controlling part and process quality by addressing the key characteristics and engineering requirements.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Controlled process
(Quality) capable process The distinguishing features are:
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Controlling
Monitoring and coordination concept to support company management in the framework of result oriented planning and the implementation of business activities. Controlling focuses on the collection, preparation and analysis of data to prepare decisions appropriate for the objective.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Conventional true value
Measured value or numerical value for purposes of comparison. The deviation from the true value is seen as negligible for the comparison. (On the basis of DIN 1319 1)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Conveyors
Systems used to transport items or information.
Đăng bởi: Equipment

Cook's Distance
Statistical measure in regression analysis identifying influential data points affecting regression coefficients.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Coordinate measuring machine (CMM)
Coordinate measuring machine (CMM): A device that dimensionally measures 3 D products, tools and components with an accuracy approaching 0.0001 inches.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

COPQ
“Cost of poor quality“ refers to the costs that arise when a company or a process delivers poor quality. For example, this could be the cost for reworking or scrapping. The concept, however, also includes costs incurred by image loss, quality audits, supplier monitoring, etc.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Core process
Process that, taking the company focus into consideration, is strategically important and a significant contributor to the business success. Core processes generally display the following aspects: Value creation, the (external) customer stands at the beginning and end of the process, they significantly contribute to the company‘s success and to customer satisfaction, they relate directly to the customers and have a direct effect on the customers, and the customer is willing to pay for the process output.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Correction
Action to resolve a detected nonconformity. Reworking or regrading are corrections. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Corrective action
Corrective action: A solution meant to reduce or eliminate an identified problem.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Corrective action recommendation (CAR)
Corrective action recommendation (CAR): The full cycle corrective action tool that offers ease and simplicity for employee involvement in the corrective action/process improvement cycle.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Correlation
Statements regarding the linear relationship between two variables. Also see: Scatter diagram (correlation diagram).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Correlation (statistical)
Correlation (statistical): A measure of the relationship between two data sets of variables.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Correlation Coefficient
Statistical measure indicating the strength and direction of the linear relationship between two variables.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Correlation coefficient (r)
Measurement of the strength of the linear relationship between the influencing factor (x) and the output quantity (Y). This method is used to identify significant influencing factors. The correlation coefficient (r) can have a value from 1 to +1.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Corrosives
Materials causing chemical destruction on exposure.
Đăng bởi: Health Hazard

Cos
Mathematical function returning the cosine value of an angle in trigonometry.
Đăng bởi: Mathematical Function

COSHH
Control of Substances Hazardous to Health: Regulations and guidelines ensuring safety when working with hazardous substances.
Đăng bởi: Safety Regulation

Cost benefit analysis
Instrument for reviewing investments.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Cost of poor quality (COPQ)
Cost of poor quality (COPQ): The costs associated with providing poor quality products or services. There are four categories: internal failure costs (costs associated with defects found before the customer receives the product or service), external failure costs (costs associated with defects found after the customer receives the product or service), appraisal costs (costs incurred to determine the degree of conformance to quality requirements) and prevention costs (costs incurred to keep failure and appraisal costs to a minimum).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Cost of quality (COQ)
Cost of quality (COQ): Another term for COPQ. It is considered by some to be synonymous with COPQ but is considered by others to be unique. While the two concepts emphasize the same ideas, some disagree as to which concept came first and which categories are included in each.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Cost Optimization
Process of minimizing costs while maximizing value or efficiency in a system, project, or operation.
Đăng bởi: Cost Management

Count chart
Count chart: A control chart for evaluating the stability of a process in terms of the count of events of a given classification occurring in a sample; known as a “c chart.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Count per unit chart
Count per unit chart: A control chart for evaluating the stability of a process in terms of the average count of events of a given classification per unit occurring in a sample, known as a “u chart.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Counter Measures
Actions or strategies implemented to mitigate or address identified problems, errors, or defects in a process or product.
Đăng bởi: Problem Solving Strategy

Countermeasure
See Counter Measures.
Đăng bởi: Problem Solving Strategy

Covariance
Statistical measure representing the degree to which two random variables change together.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Covariate
In statistics, a variable that's possibly predictive or influential in an analysis but is not the primary variable of interest.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Variable

Cox Snell Residuals
Residuals used in logistic regression models to evaluate goodness of fit and predictive accuracy.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Cp
Cp: The ratio of tolerance to 6 sigma, or the upper specification limit (USL) minus the lower specification limit (LSL) divided by 6 sigma. It is sometimes referred to as the engineering tolerance divided by the natural tolerance and is only a measure of dispersion.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Cp and Pp
Measures of process capability in Six Sigma, evaluating process performance and potential deviation from specifications.
Đăng bởi: Six Sigma Measurement

Cp Statistic
Statistical measure assessing process capability indicating how well a process meets specifications.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

CPK
Capability of process. Process capability index (measure of dispersion and location).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Cpk CPU CPL
Measures of process capability considering the process centering and the spread of data in relation to specifications.
Đăng bởi: Process Capability

Cpk index
Cpk index: Equals the lesser of the USL minus the mean divided by 3 sigma (or the mean) minus the LSL divided by 3 sigma. The greater the Cpk value, the better.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Cpm
Critical Path Method: A project management technique identifying the critical path and sequence of tasks in a project schedule.
Đăng bởi: Project Management Tool

Cramer's V
Statistical measure indicating the strength and direction of association between categorical variables.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Cranes
Hoist equipped machines for lifting and lowering heavy objects.
Đăng bởi: Equipment

Creativity techniques
The (seven) creativity techniques are suitable for all situations in a company in which new ideas are sought. In detail, these are: Mind mapping, progressive abstraction, morphological box, method 635, synetcics meeting, visual synectics, buzzword analysis. See each term.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Criteria Matrix
Tool used to rank or evaluate options or alternatives based on defined criteria, also known as Cause and Effect Matrix.
Đăng bởi: Decision Making Tool

Critical deviation
Evaluation of an audit finding. There is a (critical) deviation (nonconformity) when a complete, required procedure or a requirement from the standards is not fulfilled or is not installed in the company. Non fulfillment is with respect to a complete sub point of a chapter. This includes both a lack of planning and a lack of effective implementation. A (critical) deviation (nonconformity) always necessitates a corrective action. A certificate cannot be issued until there is effective realization and elimination of the deviation (nonconformity).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Critical Distance
In spatial analysis or statistics, the minimum separation or distance required between data points or objects to be considered distinct.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Critical Equipment
Machinery, tools, or components crucial to the functioning or operation of a system, process, or project.
Đăng bởi: Operational Asset

Critical incident
Critical incident: The critical incident technique is an advanced tool for root cause analysis that can aid in the search for causes through interviews of various people involved in the process in which a critical event occurred.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Critical nonconformity
Nonconformity which can result in critical consequences for the environment in question.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Critical Path
Sequence of tasks or activities in a project schedule determining the minimum time needed to complete the project.
Đăng bởi: Project Management Tool

Critical Path Method (CPM)
See Cpm.
Đăng bởi: Project Management Tool

Critical processes
Critical processes: Processes that present serious potential dangers to human life, health and the environment, or that risk the loss of significant sums of money or customers.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Critical to Cost (CTC) Metrics
Metrics focusing on aspects directly influencing or critical to the cost structure or financial performance of a system or process.
Đăng bởi: Performance Measurement

Critical to Quality (CTQ)
See Critical to Quality (CTQ) Metrics.
Đăng bởi: Performance Measurement

Critical to Quality (CTQ) Metrics
Metrics focusing on factors critical to meeting customer requirements or ensuring product or service quality.
Đăng bởi: Performance Measurement

Critical to Schedule (CTS) Metrics
Metrics focusing on elements critical to adhering to project schedules or timelines.
Đăng bởi: Performance Measurement

Critical Value
In statistics, a value used as a threshold or cutoff point in hypothesis testing or confidence intervals.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Critical X
In Six Sigma methodology, factors or variables identified as critical to the outcome or performance of a process.
Đăng bởi: Six Sigma Methodology

CRM
See Customer Relationship Management.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Cronbach's Alpha
Statistical measure assessing internal consistency or reliability of a scale or instrument used in surveys or assessments.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Crosby
The American Philip B. Crosby (1926 – 2001) was one of the pioneers and significant figures in quality science. His primary focus was on the “zero defects program.“
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Cross Dock
Facility sorting and recombining items for outbound shipment without storing goods.
Đăng bởi: Logistics

Cross functional
Cross functional: A term used to describe a process or an activity that crosses the boundary between functions. A cross functional team consists of individuals from more than one organizational unit or function.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Cross functional management
Integration of a company‘s vertical and horizontal elements: Management across functions and departments.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Cross Functional Map
Visual representation showing processes or workflows involving multiple departments or functions in an organization.
Đăng bởi: Business Process Mapping

Cross functional team
Work group comprised of people with different work experience. The group can be composed of employees from the finance, marketing, production and human resources areas. Typically, the employees are drawn from all levels in the organization. It is also possible to expand the group of people to include customers, advisers or suppliers (organizations outside the company).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Cross pilot
Cross pilot: See “scatter diagram.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Cross Validated Fits PLS
Cross validation method assessing the predictive performance of Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression models.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Technique

Cross Validated Residual PLS
Residuals in Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression models validated through cross validation techniques for assessing predictive performance.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Crossed and Nested Factors
In experimental design, factors involving combinations of both crossed (independent) and nested (hierarchical) factors.
Đăng bởi: Experimental Design

Crosshairs
Visual aid in graphs or charts, intersecting lines marking specific points or coordinates, aiding in measurements or reference.
Đăng bởi: Graphical Element

Crush Injury
Injury occurring from force or pressure applied to a body part, usually between heavy objects.
Đăng bởi: Injury Classification

CSA
Canadian Standards Association, Mississauga (Ontario). www.csa.org
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

CSF
Critical Success Factor.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

CSI
Customer Satisfaction Index. Indicator to determine and measure customer satisfaction.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

CSM
Customer Satisfaction Measurement.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

CTQ
Critical to Quality: Factors or attributes critical in meeting customer requirements or ensuring product/service quality.
Đăng bởi: Performance Measurement

CTQ drill down technique
Tool to set clear, measurable sub goals when introducing Six Sigma. At the strategic level, first the group goals (CTQs: Critical to Quality) are defined. The company‘s vision, customer wishes and competitors‘ activity form the basis for these objectives. In the next step, these strategic goals are then systematically broken down (drill down) into district objectives, plant objectives and all the way down to sub goals. It is crucial for the sub goals to be clearly formulated and measureable.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Cube Plot
Three dimensional graphical representation displaying data points in a cube shaped space, often used in data visualization.
Đăng bởi: Data Visualization

Cultural resistance
Cultural resistance: A form of resistance based on opposition to the possible social and organizational consequences associated with change.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Culture change
Culture change: A major shift in the attitudes, norms, sentiments, beliefs, values, operating principles and behavior of an organization.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Culture, organizational
Culture, organizational: A common set of values, beliefs, attitudes, perceptions and accepted behaviors shared by individuals within an organization.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

CUMN
Cumulative Normal Distribution: The cumulative distribution function for the normal distribution in statistical analysis.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Cumulative Distribution Fun
Cumulative Distribution Function: A function showing the cumulative probability distribution of a random variable.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Cumulative DPU Plot
Graphical representation displaying the cumulative defects per unit (DPU) over a specified period or quantity produced.
Đăng bởi: Quality Control Chart

Cumulative Failure Plot
Graph or chart showing the cumulative number or proportion of failures or defects over time or quantity produced.
Đăng bởi: Quality Control Chart

Cumulative Failure Rate
The rate or proportion at which failures or defects accumulate or occur over time or production cycles.
Đăng bởi: Quality Control Measure

Cumulative Percent
Percentage indicating the accumulation or sum of proportions or percentages up to a specified point in a sequence or data set.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Cumulative Percent Defective Plot
Graphical representation indicating the cumulative percentage of defective items or units in a production process.
Đăng bởi: Quality Control Chart

Cumulative sum control chart (CUSUM)
Cumulative sum control chart (CUSUM): A control chart on which the plotted value is the cumulative sum of deviations of successive samples from a target value. The ordinate of each plotted point represents the algebraic sum of the previous ordinate and the most recent deviations from the target.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Current good manufacturing practices (CGMP)
Current good manufacturing practices (CGMP): Regulations enforced by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for food and chemical manufacturers and packagers.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Current Time CTIME
A representation of the current time in various systems or applications, often used in programming or data processing.
Đăng bởi: Time Measurement

Customer
An individual or entity purchasing or using products or services provided by an organization.
Đăng bởi: Business Relation

Customer delight
Customer delight: The result of delivering a product or service that exceeds customer expectations.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Customer experiment
Customer experiment: Using a given customer type to test whether a proposed new product will be accepted by customers. Also referred to as a pilot study.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Customer feedback
Statements from customers on how they perceive the quality of the supplied product.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Customer focus
Focus of all of a company‘s activities and sequences on the wishes and expectations of its customers. Customer focus is one of the quality management principles (see Quality management principles). You can find out more about this in the Quality management principles.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Customer property
Products or services that belong to the customer. They become a part of the production or service process. According to ISO 9001:2015, intellectual property and personal data can also be customer property. (On the basis of ISO 9001:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Customer Relationship Management
Documentation and administration of customer relations (also electronically).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Customer relationship management (CRM)
Customer relationship management (CRM): A strategy for learning more about customers’ needs and behaviors to develop stronger relationships with them. It brings together information about customers, sales, marketing effectiveness, responsiveness and market trends. It helps businesses use technology and human resources to gain insight into the behavior of customers and the value of those customers.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Customer requirement
See Requirement.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Customer Requirements
Specifications or expectations outlined by customers regarding the products or services they desire.
Đăng bởi: Business Requirement

Customer satisfaction
Customer satisfaction: The result of delivering a product or service that meets customer requirements.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Customer service
Interaction between the organization and the customer during the product life cycle. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Customer supplier model (CSM)
Customer supplier model (CSM): A model depicting inputs flowing into a work process that, in turn, add value and produce outputs delivered to a customer. Also called customer supplier methodology.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Customer supplier partnership
Customer supplier partnership: A long term relationship between a buyer and supplier characterized by teamwork and mutual confidence. The supplier is considered an extension of the buyer’s organization. The partnership is based on several commitments. The buyer provides long term contracts and uses fewer suppliers. The supplier implements quality assurance processes so incoming inspection can be minimized. The supplier also helps the buyer reduce costs and improve product and process designs.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

CUSUM Chart
Cumulative Sum Control Chart: A quality control chart used to detect shifts or deviations in processes over time.
Đăng bởi: Quality Control Chart

CWQC
Company Wide Quality Control: All activities in a company that are relevant for quality constitute company wide quality control. This comprises all employees at all hierarchical levels. CWQC is used to pursue the objective of having all activities in the product creation process satisfy the customer requirements.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Cycle
Cycle: A sequence of operations repeated regularly.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Cycle time
Cycle time: The time required to complete one cycle of an operation. If cycle time for every operation in a complete process can be reduced to equal takt time, products can be made in single piece flow. Also see “takt time.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Cycle Times
Plural form of Cycle Time, indicating the time taken for multiple cycles of a process or operation.
Đăng bởi: Time Measurement

D

D chart
D chart: See “demerit chart.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

D1
A designation or identifier used to represent a specific variable, factor, or category in various contexts.
Đăng bởi: Variable / Identifier

DAA
Department Activity Analysis.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

DACH
Deutsche Akkreditierungsstelle Chemie GmbH, Frankfurt. The accreditation assignments were combined in a new structure in the DAkkS as Germany‘s National Accreditation Body as of January 1, 2010. The DACH entered the DAkkS via the DGA.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Daily Standup
A short, regular meeting in agile or Scrum methodologies where team members discuss progress, plans, and impediments.
Đăng bởi: Agile / Project Management

DAkkS
Deutsche Akkreditierungsstelle GmbH, Berlin. Germany‘s National Accreditation Body. The organization started its activities on January 1, 2010 and bundles all accreditation assignments in Germany.  www.dakks.de
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Dandori Gae Jikan
Set up time, equal to off line setup plus on line setup plus adjustment
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Danger
Situation in which the existing risk is greater than the acceptable risk. (DIN VDE 31000 2)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Dangerous Occurrence
Specific reportable adverse events under Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR).
Đăng bởi: Reporting/Classification

Dantotsu
Continuous pursuit of excellence or being the best.
Đăng bởi: Continuous Improvement

DAP
1. Deming Application Prize. 2. Deutsches Akkreditierungssystem für Prüfwesen GmbH, Berlin. The accreditation assignments were combined in a new structure in the DAkkS as Germany‘s national accreditation body as of January 1, 2010. The DAP entered the DAkkS via the DGA. www.dakks.de
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

DAR
Deutscher Akkreditierungsrat. The obligations for monitoring were moved to the DAkkS as of January 1, 2010.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

DASET
Deutsche Akkreditierungsstelle Stahlbau und Energietechnik, Düsseldorf. The accreditation assignments were combined in a new structure in the DAkkS as Germany‘s national accreditation body as of January 1, 2010.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

DASMIN
Deutsche Akkreditierungsstelle Mineralöl GmbH, Hamburg. The accreditation assignments were combined in a new structure in the DAkkS as Germany‘s national accreditation body as of January 1, 2010.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Data
Data: A set of collected facts. There are two basic kinds of numerical data: measured or variable data, such as “16 ounces,” “4 miles” and “ 0.75 inches”; and counted or attribute data, such as “162 defects.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Data and Fitted Means
Statistical terms referring to observed data values and corresponding predicted or fitted mean values from a model.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Analysis

Data collection and analysis
Data collection and analysis: The process to determine what data are to be collected, how the data are collected and how the data are to be analyzed.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Data collection and analysis tools
Data collection and analysis tools: A set of tools that help with data collection and analysis. These tools include check sheets, spreadsheets, histograms, trend charts and control charts.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Data Controller
Entity determining the purpose and means of processing personal data.
Đăng bởi: Data Processing Responsibility

Data Entry Arrow
Symbol or indicator used in data flow diagrams or process maps, representing the entry or input of data into a system.
Đăng bởi: Process Flow Symbol

Data Label
Identifier or descriptor attached to a data point or element in a graph, chart, or visualization, providing additional information.
Đăng bởi: Data Representation

Data Processor
Entity processing personal data on behalf of a controller.
Đăng bởi: Data Processing Responsibility

Data Storage File Formats
Structures or standards specifying how data is organized and stored within files or databases.
Đăng bởi: Data Management

Data Subject
Identified or identifiable living individual to whom personal data relates.
Đăng bởi: Data Identification

Data Transformation
Process of converting or modifying data from one format, structure, or representation to another for analysis or storage.
Đăng bởi: Data Processing

Data Type
Classification or categorization of data based on its nature, format, or characteristics (e.g., numeric, text, date).
Đăng bởi: Data Classification

Date from Text DATE
In programming or data processing, a function or method to extract or convert date information from textual data.
Đăng bởi: Data Processing Function

DATech
Deutsche Akkreditierungsstelle für Technik, Frankfurt. The accreditation assignments were combined in a new structure in the DAkkS as Germany‘s national accreditation body as of January 1, 2010.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

DAU
Deutsche Akkreditierungs und Zulassungsgesellschaft für Umweltgutachter mbH, Bonn. The accreditation assignments were combined in a new structure in the DAkkS as Germany‘s national accreditation body as of January 1, 2010.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

DDE
Dynamic Data Exchange: Mechanism allowing applications to share data or communicate in real time within a Windows environment.
Đăng bởi: Software Communication

Decimal Separator
Symbol or character used to separate the integer part from the fractional part in decimal numbers (e.g., period or comma).
Đăng bởi: Numerical Representation

Decision making
Decision making: The thought process of selecting a choice from the available options.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Decision matrix
Decision matrix: A matrix teams use to evaluate problems or possible solutions. For example, a team might draw a matrix to evaluate possible solutions, listing them in the far left vertical column. Next, the team selects criteria to rate the possible solutions, writing them across the top row. Then, each possible solution is rated on a scale of 1 to 5 for each criterion, and the rating is recorded in the corresponding grid. Finally, the ratings of all the criteria for each possible solution are added to determine its total score. The total score is then used to help decide which solution deserves the most attention.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Declaration of Conformity
See Self declaration.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Decomposed T Squared Value
Resulting value or statistic after performing decomposition on T squared values in multivariate analysis.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Decomposition Multiplicative Model
Statistical model used to decompose or break down complex patterns or relationships into simpler components in data analysis.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Modeling

Decontamination
Removal and neutralization of contaminants from employees and equipment.
Đăng bởi: Safety Measure

Defect
Defect: A product’s or service’s nonfulfillment of an intended requirement or reasonable expectation for use, including safety considerations. There are four classes of defects: class 1, very serious, leads directly to severe injury or catastrophic economic loss; class 2, serious, leads directly to significant injury or significant economic loss; class 3, major, is related to major problems with respect to intended normal or reasonably foreseeable use; and class 4, minor, is related to minor problems with respect to intended normal or reasonably foreseeable use. Also see “blemish,” “imperfection” and “nonconformity.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Defect Opportunity
A chance or opportunity for a defect to occur in a product or process, often used in Six Sigma methodologies.
Đăng bởi: Quality Control Measure

Defect per Unit (DPU)
A unit of measurement representing the number of defects identified in a single unit or item in a process or product.
Đăng bởi: Quality Control Measure

Defective
Defective: A defective unit; a unit of product that contains one or more defects with respect to the quality characteristic(s) under consideration.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Defects and Defectives
Terms used in quality control to refer to identified flaws or imperfections (defects) and units containing defects (defectives).
Đăng bởi: Quality Control Terms

Defects per Million Opportunities (DPMO)
A unit of measurement in Six Sigma, representing the number of defects per million opportunities.
Đăng bởi: Six Sigma Measurement

Defence
Ministry of Defence (MoD).
Đăng bởi: Military/Governmental

Defence Acquisition Organisations
Organizations responsible for Defence infrastructure/equipment acquisition.
Đăng bởi: Defence Procurement

Defence Acquisition Teams
Teams or individuals with Defence acquisition responsibilities.
Đăng bởi: Acquisition Personnel

Defence Activity
Execution of Defence tasks beneficial to Defence.
Đăng bởi: Operational Activity

Defence Alert
System allowing reporting via mobile devices.
Đăng bởi: Reporting System

Defence Contractors
Contractors supporting Defence activities must comply with HS&EP regulations and policies.
Đăng bởi: Compliance Requirement

Defence Organization
Military Commands, TLBs, Defence Nuclear Organisation, and Enabling Organisations collectively.
Đăng bởi: Military Organizational Structure

Defence Personnel
Individuals working on behalf of or supervised by Defence, including military and civilian personnel.
Đăng bởi: Defence Workforce

Defence Registered Asbestos Workers
Civilian personnel handling asbestos in Defence activities.
Đăng bởi: Occupational Hazard

Define
The initial phase in problem solving methodologies or project management, involving defining objectives and scope.
Đăng bởi: Project Management Phase

Define Phase
The initial phase in problem solving methodologies or project management, involving defining objectives and scope.
Đăng bởi: Project Management Phase

Defining Relation
In database management or mathematics, a relationship defining or constraining the values or behavior of other elements.
Đăng bởi: Database Relationship

Degree of Lattice
A mathematical term referring to the properties or characteristics of lattices in algebraic structures.
Đăng bởi: Mathematical Concept

Degrees of Freedom
The number of independent observations or parameters in a statistical model, influencing variability and model flexibility.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Delighter
Delighter: A feature of a product or service that a customer does not expect to receive but that gives pleasure to the customer when received. Also called an “exciter.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Deliverables
Tangible or intangible outcomes or products produced and delivered as part of a project or assignment.
Đăng bởi: Project Management

Delivery Duty Holder
Accountable individual managing risk within their defined area of responsibility.
Đăng bởi: Risk Management Responsibility

Delivery inspection
Acceptance inspection that is performed before a product is delivered. It is used to prove that the requirements or technical terms of delivery have meet fulfilled. This inspection can also be conducted at the same time as the final inspection. The contractor is responsible for the delivery inspection (as far as no agreements to the contrary have been reached). This can be either an internal or external contractor. (On the basis of DIN 55350 17)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Delivery lot
One or more lots that are delivered as a whole at one time. (DGQ Volume 11 04:2009)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Delphi method
Systematic questioning procedure that comprises several steps. This method is used to allow a better assessment of trends, technical developments or, for example, future events.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Delta
A symbol representing change or difference between two values, often used in mathematical equations or models.
Đăng bởi: Mathematical Symbol

Delta Beta
A statistical measure or coefficient indicating the effect or impact of a variable on another variable in a regression model.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Delta Beta Standardized
A standardized form of the Delta Beta coefficient, representing the standardized effect size in regression analysis.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Delta Chi Square
A statistical measure or test statistic indicating the difference or change in chi square values in hypothesis testing or analysis.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Delta Deviance
A measure of deviance or difference between two models or statistical fits in regression or modeling.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Demand Variability
Fluctuations or variations in demand for products or services over a specific period, affecting inventory and production planning.
Đăng bởi: Business Measure

Demerit chart
Demerit chart: A control chart for evaluating a process in terms of a demerit (or quality score); in other words, a weighted sum of counts of various classified nonconformities.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Deming
The American William Edwards Deming (1900 –1993) was one of the thinkers and significant figures in quality science. His work focused primarily on the “14 point management program“ and the “principle of continual improvement.“
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Deming cycle
Deming cycle: Another term for the plan do study act cycle. Walter Shewhart created it (calling it the plan do check act cycle), but W. Edwards Deming popularized it, calling it plan do study act. Also see “plan do check act cycle."
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Demonstration requirement
Requirement for demonstration of the implementation of management elements with respect to the customer or the client in the case of a contractual agreement, or with respect to a competent body in the case of legal requirement. Note: Demonstration requirements result from the fact that the quality of complex products cannot be determined by an incoming inspection alone. (DGQ Volume 11 04:2009)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Dendrogram
A tree like diagram representing hierarchical relationships or clustering in data analysis, often used in clustering algorithms.
Đăng bởi: Data Visualization

Dependability
Dependability: The degree to which a product is operable and capable of performing its required function at any randomly chosen time during its specified operating time, provided that the product is available at the start of that period. (Nonoperation related influences are not included.) Dependability can be expressed by the ratio: time available / (time available + time required).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Dependability requirement
Part of the quality requirement with respect to the behavior of a unit in terms of its dependability during or after stipulated time spans under stipulated use conditions. (On the basis of DIN 55350 11)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Dependency
Relationship or reliance between two or more variables or entities, where changes in one affect the other(s).
Đăng bởi: Relationship

Dependent (Failures)
Failures of system elements not considered independent.
Đăng bởi: System Failure Analysis

Deployment
Deployment: Dispersion, dissemination, broadcasting or spreading communication throughout an organization, downward and laterally. Also see “cascading.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Dermatitis
Inflammation of the skin due to contact with substances at work.
Đăng bởi: Occupational Health Skin Safety

Derricks
Machines for lifting heavy materials with a stationary foundation.
Đăng bởi: Equipment

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics
Statistical methods: Descriptive analyzes and summarizes data, while inferential draws conclusions or predictions from data samples.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Analysis

Design and development
Transforming processes that turn requirements into specified characteristics or into the specification of a product, process or system. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Design FMEA
See Failure Mode and Effects Analysis.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Design for Six Sigma
An approach integrating Six Sigma principles into product or process design to achieve high quality results from the beginning.
Đăng bởi: Quality Improvement

Design for Six Sigma (DFSS)
Design for Six Sigma (DFSS): See “DMADV.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Design Generator
Tool or software generating various experimental designs or plans for conducting studies or experiments.
Đăng bởi: Experimental Design

Design Matrix
A matrix or table indicating the arrangement or configuration of factors or variables in experimental designs.
Đăng bởi: Experimental Design

Design Matrix General Regression
Design matrix used in regression analysis involving multiple variables, specifying their arrangement and relationships in the model.
Đăng bởi: Regression Analysis

Design of experiments (DoE)
Design of experiments (DoE): A branch of applied statistics dealing with planning, conducting, analyzing and interpreting controlled tests to evaluate the factors that control the value of a parameter or group of parameters.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Design Points Factorial Design
Specific settings or combinations of factors used in factorial experimental designs to conduct experiments.
Đăng bởi: Experimental Design

Design Points Mixture Design
Specific settings or combinations of factors used in mixture experimental designs to conduct experiments.
Đăng bởi: Experimental Design

Design Points Response Surface Design
Specific settings or combinations of factors used in response surface experimental designs to conduct experiments.
Đăng bởi: Experimental Design

Design Resolution
In experimental design, the minimum detectable effect size that the design can identify or distinguish.
Đăng bởi: Experimental Design

Design review
Examination of a preliminary design from quality points of view. (On the basis of DIN 55350 17)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Design review technique
See Review technique.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Design test
Systematic examination of a design and all partial outcomes. The objective is to check if the quality requirements are fulfilled. This test must be documented.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Designed Experiment
An experiment planned or structured to investigate the effects of various factors or variables on a system or process.
Đăng bởi: Experimental Design

Desired value
Value of a quantitative characteristic. This characteristic‘s actual values should differ from the desired value as little as possible. (On the basis of DIN 55350 12)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Destructive Testing
Testing or analysis that renders the tested item unusable or alters its state, often performed to evaluate material strength or quality.
Đăng bởi: Testing Method

Determination
Activity for identifying one or more characteristics (and their characteristic values). (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Development model
(On the basis of DIN 55350 15)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Development Team
A group of individuals collaborating and working together on projects or tasks related to product or process development.
Đăng bởi: Project Team

Deviance Residuals
Residuals used in assessing goodness of fit in statistical models, indicating the difference between observed and predicted values.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Deviation
Deviation: In numerical data sets, the difference or distance of an individual observation or data value from the center point (often the mean) of the set distribution.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Deviation permit
Permission to deviate from the requirements originally placed on a product. This permission is granted before the product realization. It is normally limited to a certain quantity of a product or for a certain time span and for a certain use. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

DFA
Design for Assembly. Product design and development with ease of assembly considerations. (On the basis of IATF 16949:2016)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

DFITS
A statistical measure identifying influential data points or outliers in regression analysis.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

DFM
Design for Manufacturing. Product design and process planning with a view to easy, economical manufacturing. (On the basis of IATF 16949:2016)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

DFM / A
Design for Manufacturability and Assembly: Methodologies optimizing product designs for efficient manufacturing and assembly processes.
Đăng bởi: Design Optimization

DFMA
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly. Development and design in line with both DFM and DFA. (On the basis of IATF 16949:2016)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

DFSS
Design for Six Sigma. Six Sigma is applied as a tool both for existing processes and for processes that are to be created for the first time. The objective is to build up a process with Six Sigma capability ahead of time.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

DGA
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Akkreditierung mbH, Frankfurt. The DGA was created on September 14, 2009 by the merger of the Deutsche Akkreditierungsstelle Chemie (DACH), the Trägergemeinschaft für Akkreditierung (TGA) and the Deutsches Akkreditierungssystem Prüfwesen. The organization became a part of the new Deutsche Akkreditierungsstelle DAkkS effective as of January 1, 2010.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

DGQ
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Qualität e.V., Frankfurt. www.dgq.de
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

DGWK
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Warenkennzeichnung. DGWK was established in 1972 and today is called DINCERTCO Gesellschaft zur Konformitätsbewertung mbH, Berlin. www.dincertco.de
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

DGZfP
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Zerstörungsfreie Prüfung e.V., Berlin. www.dgzfp.de
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Diagnosis
Medical practitioner's identification of new or worsening symptoms.
Đăng bởi: Medical Assessment

Diagnostic journey and remedial journey
Diagnostic journey and remedial journey: A two phase investigation used by teams to solve chronic quality problems. In the first phase, the diagnostic journey, the team journeys from the symptom of a chronic problem to its cause. In the second phase, the remedial journey, the team journeys from the cause to its remedy
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Difference Power and Sample Size
Calculations or considerations involving statistical power and sample size to detect differences between groups or populations.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Analysis

Differences
Variances or distinctions between entities, variables, or groups often measured or analyzed in statistical or comparative studies.
Đăng bởi: Comparative Analysis

DIN
Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V., Berlin. www.din.de
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

DIN SPEC
Technical specification that is published by the DIN.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Direct costs
Costs that can be attributed directly to the product.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

DIS
Draft International Standard. Draft for a standard.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Discrete and Continuous Variables
Different types of variables: Discrete take distinct values, while continuous can take any value within a range.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Concepts

Discrete characteristic
Quantitative characteristic with a finite number or countably infinite number of forms. (On the basis of DIN 55350 12)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Discrete data
See Quantitative data.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Discrete Distribution
A probability distribution describing outcomes with distinct values or categories, like binomial or Poisson distributions.
Đăng bởi: Probability Distribution

Discrimination threshold
Smallest change in an input value that can still be perceived by a measuring instrument.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Dispersion (also called variability)
Qualitative term for the deviation behavior of characteristic values.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Display Screen Equipment
Devices with alphanumeric/graphic displays, e.g., laptops, touch screens.
Đăng bởi: Equipment/Health

Distances from x Model PLS
Distances indicating the relationships between predictor variables and the model in Partial Least Squares regression.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Distances from y Model PLS
Distances indicating the relationships between response variables and the model in Partial Least Squares regression.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Distribution
Statement on how how a characteristic is likely to behave. (On the basis of ISO 3534 1)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Distribution Fit Line
A line representing the best fit or estimated distribution of data points on a graph or visualization.
Đăng bởi: Data Visualization

DITR
Deutsches Informationszentrum für Technische Regeln in the DIN. The DITR database contains bibliographical identification of around 300 sets of regulations.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Diversity
Performing the same function in a redundant system using different means.
Đăng bởi: Redundancy in System Design

DKD
Deutscher Kalibrierdienst, Braunschweig. The accreditation assignments were combined in a new structure in the DAkkS as Germany‘s national accreditation body.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

DKE
Deutsche Kommission Elektrotechnik Elektronik Informationstechnik in the DIN and VDE, Frankfurt.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

DMADV
DMADV: A data driven quality strategy for designing products and processes, it is an integral part of a Six Sigma quality initiative. It consists of five interconnected phases: define, measure, analyze, design and verify.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

DMAIC
DMAIC: A data driven quality strategy for improving processes and an integral part of a Six Sigma quality initiative. DMAIC is an acronym for define, measure, analyze, improve and control.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Document
Information and the medium on which it is depicted (carrier medium). A document can be in paper form, electronic, a photograph, a master sample or a combination of these. ISO 9000:2015 lists as examples: Record, specification, procedure document, drawing, report and standard. Several documents (e.g., specifications and records) are also referred to as documentation. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Document control
Documented procedure for creating, checking, approving, identifying, distributing and updating documents. Document control also includes the identification and distribution of external documents, such as standards, customer specifications or customer drawings. If obsolete documents are stored, they must be identified in such an unambiguous manner that unintended use can be ruled out. Furthermore, not only documents from the management documentation should be subject to document control. Job descriptions, operating instructions, operating manuals for products, specifications, calculation bases or price lists that are used as specifications to fulfill customer requirements should also be taken into consideration. Records represent a special document type. Document control for records includes measures for the identification, storage, protection, retrieval, retention and disposition of records. (cf. ISO 9001:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Documentation
All documents that belong to a system, project, process or product. See Document.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Documented information
Information (including its storage medium) which is subject to the control of documents. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Dodge Romig sampling plans
Dodge Romig sampling plans: Plans for acceptance sampling developed by Harold F. Dodge and Harry G. Romig. Four sets of tables were published in 1940: single sampling lot tolerance tables, double sampling lot tolerance tables, single sampling average outgoing quality limit tables and double sampling average outgoing quality limit tables.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

DoE
Design of Experiments. See Statistical experimental design.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Domain
Functional area description, e.g., 'Aviation' domain in the military.
Đăng bởi: Functional Classification

Dot plot
Graphics tool (also: one dimensional dispersion diagram) used to show the acquired measured values on one axis. This is already sufficient to show the first data distributions. Each point is a measured value.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Dotplot Glossary
A glossary or guide explaining terms, concepts, or symbols used in dotplots, a type of data visualization.
Đăng bởi: Data Visualization

Double Root Residual
A statistical term indicating a complex root or solution in a mathematical equation or model.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Double Sampling
A statistical sampling technique involving two sets of samples or inspections to improve accuracy or reliability.
Đăng bởi: Sampling Method

Down Time
The period or duration during which a system, machine, or process is non operational or inactive.
Đăng bởi: Operational Measure

Downstream
In a process flow or supply chain, the stage or segment occurring later in the sequence, receiving outputs or products from an earlier stage.
Đăng bởi: Process Flow Position

Downtime
Time during which a unit is not available due to an internal cause. Note: Uptime and downtime together constitute the complete interval of the time between two consecutive failures for products that are to be maintained, with the uptime possibly containing breaks in operation. (DGQ Volume 11 04:2009)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

DPMO
Defects per Million Opportunities. Derived from the calculation of the DPO, but extrapolated to one million. The process indicator states how many defects would be made (on the basis of the produced units or sample) in one million opportunities for defects. DPMO DPO * 1.000.000
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

DPMO, or Defects per Million Opportunities
See DPMO.
Đăng bởi: Six Sigma Metric

DPO
Defects per Opportunity. Process indicator to measure the probabilities of defects in process steps. Here all the defects that occurred in the produced units or sample are set in relationship to all opportunities that the process/process step has to produce a defect.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

DPO, or Defects per Opportunity
A measure in Six Sigma representing the number of defects per opportunity for a defect to occur.
Đăng bởi: Six Sigma Metric

DPU
Defects per Unit
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Driving forces
Driving forces: Forces that tend to change a situation in desirable ways.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Dsear
Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations.
Đăng bởi: Regulation/Explosive Substances

Duane Plot
A graphical representation used in reliability engineering to visualize failure data or survival analysis.
Đăng bởi: Reliability Analysis

Dunnett's Method
A statistical method used in multiple comparisons to identify differences between treatments or groups while controlling the overall error rate.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Analysis

Durals
Defence Unified Reporting and Lessons System.
Đăng bởi: Reporting/Analysis System

Durbin Watson Statistic
A statistical test or measure used in regression analysis to detect autocorrelation in residuals.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Test

Dust
Solid materials broken into fine particles, suspended in the air.
Đăng bởi: Airborne Hazard

Duty Holder
Person or organization holding a legal duty under regulations.
Đăng bởi: Legal Responsibilities in Safety

Duty Holder Facing
Organizations whose activities affect a Duty Holder's risk mitigation ability.
Đăng bởi: Role/Association

Duty Holding
Framework to manage risk in Defence activities.
Đăng bởi: Risk Management Framework

Duty Holding Construct
Framework with SDH, ODH, and DDH roles managing risks.
Đăng bởi: Risk Management Structure

Duty Of Care
Legal obligation ensuring safety and well being by a person or organization.
Đăng bởi: Legal Responsibility

Dynamic Design
A flexible or adaptable design strategy or approach responding to changes, trends, or variations in a system or environment.
Đăng bởi: Design Philosophy

Dynamic Risk Assessment
Immediate or ongoing risk assessment during activities.
Đăng bởi: Evaluation/Assessment

E

e 2.718
Euler's number: A mathematical constant representing the base of the natural logarithm, approximately equal to 2.71828.
Đăng bởi: Mathematical Constant

E Bi Seigyo
Two point control
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

E SAP
Electronic System Application and Products: An integrated software solution provided by SAP for enterprise resource planning (ERP) and management.
Đăng bởi: Software Solution

EA
European Co operation for Accreditation, Paris. Independent, nonprofit organization that in particular represents the interests of the European accreditation bodies.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Early Equipment Maintenance (TPM)
A Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) strategy focusing on maintaining and preserving equipment reliability from the beginning of its lifecycle.
Đăng bởi: Maintenance Strategy

EC
Engineering Change: Modification or alteration made to engineering designs, processes, or documentation.
Đăng bởi: Engineering Modification

ECRS
Employee Continuous Reinvestment and Satisfaction: A strategy or initiative focused on continuous development and satisfaction of employees.
Đăng bởi: Human Resources Strategy

ED
Experimental Design. See Design of Experiments.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Education And Training (TPM)
Training initiatives or programs within Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) strategies focusing on skill development and knowledge enhancement for employees.
Đăng bởi: TPM Initiative

EEA
See EFQM Excellence Award.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

EEM
Early Equipment Maintenance: A maintenance strategy focusing on early interventions to maintain equipment reliability and prevent failures.
Đăng bởi: Maintenance Strategy

Effect
Effect: The result of an action being taken; the expected or predicted impact when an action is to be taken or is proposed.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Effective Machine Cycle Time
Total machine cycle time including load, unload, and changeover time divided by the number of pieces.
Đăng bởi: Performance Measurement

Effectiveness
Effectiveness: 1) The state of having produced a decided upon or desired effect. 2) A measure of the appropriateness of the goals chosen and the degree to which they are achieved.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Efficiency
Efficiency: The state of being efficient (see entry). Also the ratio of the useful work performed in a process to the total resources required.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Efficient
Efficient: Achieving maximum productivity with the optimal resources.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

EffM
Effectiveness Measurement: A systematic method or approach to measure the efficiency or effectiveness of processes or operations.
Đăng bởi: Performance Measurement

EFQM
Former European Foundation for Quality Management with headquarters in Brussels. The EFQM was established in 1988 and today is a non profit organization for business excellence with more than 600 member companies in around 40 countries. The objective is to provide the member companies with information about business excellence and to strengthen the networking of the companies. In 1991 the EFQM established the prestigious EFQM Excellence Award. The EFQM presents this quality award annually to companies that achieve outstanding results. The EFQM is furthermore the guardian of the EFQM model, which serves as a guideline to help companies succeed on the markets and also to measure this success. www.efqm.org
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

EFQM Excellence Award
European quality prize that the EFQM has awarded to companies annually since 1991 as the highest recognition for outstanding achievements and excellence. The companies are rated on a system with a possible 1000 points which is divided into the nine categories: Leadership; Strategy; Employees; Partnerships/resources; Processes, Products & Services; Customer related results; Employee related results; Society related results; and Key performance results.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

EichG
Eichgesetz [German Weights and Measures Act). Law covering measurement and verification.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Eight disciplines (8D) model
Eight disciplines (8D) model: A problem solving approach to identify, correct and eliminate recurring problems.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Eight Pillars Of TPM
The fundamental principles or categories forming the basis of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) initiatives in manufacturing and maintenance.
Đăng bởi: TPM Principles

Eight wastes
Eight wastes: Taiichi Ohno originally enumerated seven wastes (muda) and later added underutilized people as the eighth waste commonly found in physical production. The eight are: 1) overproduction ahead of demand; 2) waiting for the next process, worker, material or equipment; 3) unnecessary transport of materials (for example, between functional areas of facilities, or to or from a stockroom or warehouse); 4) over processing of parts due to poor tool and product design; 5) inventories more than the absolute minimum; 6) unnecessary movement by employees during the course of their work (such as to look for parts, tools, prints or help); 7) production of defective parts; 8) under utilization of employees’ brainpower, skills, experience and talents.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Eighty twenty (80 20)
Eighty twenty (80 20): A term referring to the Pareto principle, which was first defined by Joseph M. Juran in 1950. The principle suggests most effects come from relatively few causes; that is, 80% of the effects come from 20% of the possible causes. Also see “Pareto chart.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Eighty Twenty Rule
Principle suggesting 80% of effects come from 20% of causes.
Đăng bởi: Business Theory

Elapsed Time
The total time or duration passed from the start of a process or event until its completion or the current time.
Đăng bởi: Time Measurement

Electric data interchange (EDI)
Electric data interchange (EDI): The electronic exchange of data from customers to suppliers and from suppliers to customers.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Electrical Hazards
Dangers from contact with energized equipment.
Đăng bởi: Hazard Outcome

Electrocutions
Death or injury due to electric shock.
Đăng bởi: Hazard Outcome

Elevate
Raising concerns to a higher authority to gain approval or accept the risk.
Đăng bởi: Risk Escalation

Elevation
Vertical distance from a point or level on or affixed to the earth's surface measured from sea level.
Đăng bởi: Measurement Metric

Elevators
Temporary devices for lifting passengers or materials.
Đăng bởi: Equipment

Em 385 1 1 Manual
Training guidelines for compliance with safety requirements.
Đăng bởi: Regulation

Emas
Employment Medical Advisory Service.
Đăng bởi: Employee Health and Medical Support

Embedded Graph Editor
Graphical editing tool or software integrated within a system or application for creating or modifying visual representations or graphs.
Đăng bởi: Graphical Tool

Emergency Action Plans
Guides for employee actions during workplace emergencies.
Đăng bởi: Safety Procedure

Emergency Spill Response
Methods for responding to hazardous substance spills.
Đăng bởi: Safety Procedure

Empirical CDF
Empirical Cumulative Distribution Function: A statistical tool representing the cumulative distribution function derived from observed data.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Employee empowerment (EE)
Employee empowerment (EE): A condition whereby employees have the authority to make decisions and take action in their work areas, within stated bounds, without prior approval.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Employee focus
Basic attitude in an organization that is focused on considering each individual employee as a significant potential for solving problems and contributing creativity and on treating each employee accordingly. Management is responsible for creating an environment in which people can develop their abilities and consequently contribute to value creation in the company. Employees should be included in structuring the processes in order that they can release their potential and contribute their abilities. The objective is to use the employees‘ know how for continual improvement (CIP) of all processes with regard to quality and productivity. (See Quality management principles).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Employee involvement (EI)
Employee involvement (EI): An organizational practice whereby employees regularly participate in making decisions on how their work areas operate, including suggestions for improvement, planning, goal setting and monitoring performance.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Employee suggestion plan
Instrument for encouraging the capacity and willingness for innovation in a company‘s employees. In many instances cash and other awards are given as an incentive for employees to submit improvement suggestions. This instrument is primarily used in order to achieve innovations in products and processes in small steps, to encourage employee motivation and development, and to make a positive contribution to a goal oriented corporate culture and culture of innovation. Employee suggestion plans have a long tradition in Germany. The idea was mentioned for the first time in a general regulation at the company Krupp in Essen in 1872.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Employee Turnover Rate
A metric indicating the rate or frequency at which employees leave an organization or company within a specific period.
Đăng bởi: HR Metric

Empowerment
Transfer of competencies and assignments previously reserved for managers to employees. This can improve employee and customer satisfaction.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

EMS
See Environmental management system.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

EN
European norm. (Standard from the CEN – Comité Européen de Normalisation)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

EN 46000
EN 46000: A European quality management system standard for the medical device industry. Technically equivalent to ISO 13485:1996, an international medical device standard.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

EN 9100
EN 9100: A European quality management standard for the aerospace industry. Considered the technical equivalent of AS9100.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

End user
End user: See “consumer.” Someone who purchases products or services for their own use.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Endangering analysis
A procedure stipulated in the framework of European directives and the national legislation on occupational health and safety based on these directives that forms the foundation of endangering judgment. Endangering analyses determine possible hazards and are to be conducted in according with the Arbeitsschutzgesetz [Occupational Health and Safety Act] or where appropriate in accordance with the Biostoffverordnung [Biomaterial Regulation] and the Gefahrstoffverordnung [Hazardous Substances Ordinance].
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Endangering judgment
An evaluation required pursuant to Section 5 Arbeitsschutzgesetz [German Occupational Health and Safety Act] of the hazards for the employees associated with their work and the determination of required occupational health and safety measures. Each workplace is to be assessed in accordance with the legal specifications. There has also been an obligation to provide documentation since 1997. The judgment is often made according to typified workplaces (chemical or physical laboratory, mechanical workshop, etc.) and includes the assignment to endangering classes.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Energy Costs per Unit
The expenditure or cost incurred per unit of energy consumed in a system, operation, or process, often used in cost analysis or efficiency assessment.
Đăng bởi: Cost Measure

Engagement of people
You can find out more about this in the Quality management principles.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Entry Permits
Permit requirements for safe entry to confined spaces.
Đăng bởi: Safety Protocol

Environment
Surroundings affected by an organization, including air, water, land, flora, fauna, and their interaction with humans.
Đăng bởi: Ecosystem Classification

Environmental Hazards
Hazards potentially affecting health and the natural environment.
Đăng bởi: Health Hazard

Environmental management
All planning and actions that concern the dealings with the natural environment characterized by environmental protection affairs and perspectives. Environmental protection is law at the national level and is standardized in the framework of European directives and international agreements. Environmental management today therefore primarily includes the fulfillment of numerous requirements and conditions. Newer management theory also defines environmental management as the analysis, control, and planning of all external relations of the company as a system.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Environmental management system
Environmental management system: A set of processes and practices that enable an organization to reduce its environmental impacts and promote environmental sustainability.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

EOQ
European Organization for Quality, Brussels. European (non profit) organization with the objective of effective improvement in the quality management area. The EOQ sees itself as a coordinating body for its member organizations. It was founded in 1956 and currently has 30 national European quality organizations, institutions, companies and individual people from all around the world. www.eoq.org
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

EPA model
Enterprise Process Architecture: Reference model for processoriented, service based company architectures. This model is used to analyze different approaches to integration and to transfer them into a uniform model.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

EPM
Enterprise Performance Management: Strategies or methodologies focused on managing and improving organizational performance across various domains.
Đăng bởi: Business Strategy

EQA
See European Quality Award.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Equipment availability
Equipment availability: The percentage of time during which a process (or equipment) is available to run. This can sometimes be called uptime. To calculate operational availability, divide the machine’s operating time during the process by the net available time (production time / potential production time) x 100.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Ergonomics
Study of the relationship between workers and their environment to improve work conditions.
Đăng bởi: Workplace Ergonomics

ERP
Enterprise Resource Planning. ERP characterizes a company‘s task to use resources in the company efficiently for business operations. ERP systems consist of complex application software to support resource planning.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Error
Mistake or error in judgment leading to accidents.
Đăng bởi: Error Analysis in Safety

Error detection
Error detection: A hybrid form of error proofing. It means a bad part can be made but will be caught immediately, and corrective action will be taken to prevent another bad part from being produced. A device is used to detect and stop the process when a bad part is made. This is used when error proofing is too expensive or not easily implemented.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Error Detection Device
A device or tool integrated into a system or process to identify or flag errors or anomalies for corrective actions.
Đăng bởi: Quality Control Measure

Error margin
Limiting amounts of deviations for errors of measurement in the measuring instrument. (On the basis of DIN 1319 1)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Error of measurement
Deviation of the (uncorrected) measurement result from the reference value, where this can be the true value, the correct value or the expected value, depending on the definition or agreement.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Error proofing
Error proofing: Improving designs to prevent mistakes from being made. Contrasted with mistake proofing, which is improving processes to prevent mistakes from being made or passed downstream. Some consider the terms to be synonymous, however, and applicable to both products and processes.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Error Proofing Device
A device or mechanism incorporated into a system or process to prevent or minimize errors, defects, or mistakes automatically.
Đăng bởi: Quality Improvement

Establishment
Geographical area with controlled access to a place of work.
Đăng bởi: Location/Environment

Estimated Variance Component
An estimation or calculation indicating the variance within a dataset or model attributed to specific factors or sources.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Estimation Method
A systematic approach or technique used to estimate or predict unknown quantities or parameters based on available data or information.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Technique

Estimator
Characteristic used to estimate a probability distribution parameter. (On the basis of DGQ Volume 11 04:2012)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

ETA
Event Tree Analysis.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Eta (Event Tree Analysis)
Graphical method exploring hazardous events and outcomes.
Đăng bởi: Hazard Analysis and Prediction

Ethics
Ethics: The practice of applying a code of conduct based on moral principles to day to day actions to balance what is fair to individuals or organizations with what is right for society.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

ETSI
European Telecommunications Standards Institute, France.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

European Cooperation for Accreditation (EA)
European Cooperation for Accreditation (EA): A cooperative organization of accreditation bodies.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

European Quality Award
The European Quality Award was renamed the EFQM Excellence Award (EEA) in 2006. See EEA.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Evaluation
1. Selection, analysis and consolidation of data.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Evaluation matrix
See Matrix diagram.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Event Plot
A graphical representation or visualization displaying events or occurrences over time, often used in process analysis or monitoring.
Đăng bởi: Data Visualization

Event Probability
The likelihood or chance of a specific event or outcome occurring, expressed as a numerical value between 0 and 1.
Đăng bởi: Probability Measure

Every Product Every Interval (Epex)
Frequency of production for different part numbers in a process or system.
Đăng bởi: Performance Measurement

Evidence
Information supporting one or more claims.
Đăng bởi: Data/Supporting Information

Evidence based decision making
You can find out more about this in the Quality management principles.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

EVOP
Evolutionary Operation of Processes. Analysis of process data with small dispersions within the parameters (variant of DoE).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

EWMA Chart
Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Chart: A control chart used to monitor processes by detecting subtle shifts or changes in data.
Đăng bởi: Quality Control Tool

Ewr (Electricity At Work Regulations)
Regulations governing electrical work safety.
Đăng bởi: Electrical Safety Standards

Excavation
Removal of soil or rock with tools, machinery, or explosives.
Đăng bởi: Hazard Outcome

Excellence models
The approaches to quality management systems on the basis of the ISO 9000 family of standards and the excellence models for organizations are based on common principles. Both approaches allow an organization to identify its strengths and weaknesses. They furthermore contain possibilities for evaluation using general models, offer a basis for continual improvement, and allow external recognition.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Exciter
Exciter: See “delighter.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Exemplar Global
Exemplar Global: A U.S. certification body for personnel certification or training course certification.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Expectation
For discrete variates, the sum of the products of all numerical values xi of the variate X and of the associated probabilities pi; for continuous variates the corresponding integral.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Expectations
Expectations: The act or state of expecting. To wait in expectation of, or looking forward or anticipating. Also, customers’ perceptions about how an organization’s products and services will meet their specific needs and requirements.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Expected Performance
The anticipated or predicted level of performance or output based on calculations, models, or prior data analysis.
Đăng bởi: Performance Expectation

Experiment Design
The planning or arrangement of factors and variables in a structured manner to conduct experiments or studies to analyze their effects.
Đăng bởi: Experimental Design

Experimental design
Experimental design: In quality management, a plan for conducting an experiment that includes considerations such as which conditions, factors, responses, tools and treatments are to be included or used.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Expo
An abbreviation for "Exponential" commonly used in statistical or mathematical contexts representing exponential distributions or functions.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Abbreviation

Exponential Distribution
A probability distribution describing the time between events in a Poisson process or the decay of a quantity over time.
Đăng bởi: Probability Distribution

Exposure
Period personnel are subjected to the noise environment, measured in hourly/daily/weekly terms.
Đăng bởi: Duration of Noise Exposure

Exposure Action Value
Threshold levels for daily/weekly noise or peak sound pressure, triggering specific actions.
Đăng bởi: Noise Exposure Assessment

Exposure Limit Value
Level of noise exposure not to be exceeded in a day/week.
Đăng bởi: Noise Exposure Threshold

External Customer
End user or recipient of a product or service outside the organization.
Đăng bởi: Business Management

External failure
External failure: A nonconformance identified by a source outside of the producing organization. Discovered after a product or service has been passed downstream, for example, to users or customers.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

External provider
A provider which is not part of the organization. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

External quality audit
See Second party audit, Third party audit.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

External setup
External setup: Setup procedures that can be performed safely while machines or equipment are in motion. Also known as outer exchange of die. Also see “ internal setup.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

External Stakeholders
Individuals, groups, or entities outside an organization having an interest, influence, or stake in the organization's decisions or outcomes.
Đăng bởi: Stakeholder Management

External Work
Activities, tasks, or operations outsourced or performed by external contractors or parties outside an organization.
Đăng bởi: Business Operation

Externally provided processes
Selected processes or parts of processes which the organization does not execute itself but are externally provided. These processes are characterized by being required by the quality management system. The organization remains responsible for the output of these processes. It is up to the organization to control externally provided processes to make sure that they fulfill such requirements. (See also ISO 9001:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Extra Processing
Additional or unnecessary steps, operations, or activities in a process or operation that do not add value or contribute to the end product or service.
Đăng bởi: Process Efficiency

Extreme value
Smallest or also largest individual actual value. (On the basis of DIN 55350 12)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Extreme Vertices Designs
Experimental designs involving extreme or boundary points in the design space used to evaluate factors' effects at those points.
Đăng bởi: Experimental Design

F

F Distribution
A probability distribution used in statistical analysis, particularly in ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to test the equality of variances.
Đăng bởi: Probability Distribution

F Test
A statistical test used to compare the variances or means of two or more populations, often employed in analysis of variance (ANOVA).
Đăng bởi: Statistical Test

FAC
Fast Action Center: A center or department focusing on rapid response, resolution, or action on critical issues or incidents.
Đăng bởi: Operations Management

Facilitator
Facilitator: A specifically trained person who functions as a teacher, coach and moderator for a group, team or organization.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Factor
An independent variable or element that influences or affects the outcome, behavior, or performance of a system or process.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Variable

Factor Analysis
Statistical method analyzing relationships or patterns among variables, identifying underlying factors or constructs.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Analysis

Factor and Factor Level
In experimental design, factors represent variables under study, while factor levels indicate the specific settings or values of those variables.
Đăng bởi: Experimental Design

Factor Coefficients
Coefficients representing the effects or contributions of factors in a regression equation or model.
Đăng bởi: Regression Analysis

Factor Loadings
Numeric values indicating the strength or magnitude of variables' relationships with latent factors in factor analysis.
Đăng bởi: Factor Analysis Measure

Factor Scores
Computed scores representing individuals or cases' relationship with latent factors derived from factor analysis.
Đăng bởi: Factor Analysis Measure

Factorial
A term referring to the method or arrangement of experimental factors in a factorial design, exploring interactions between factors.
Đăng bởi: Experimental Design

Factorial Design
An experimental design where multiple factors are studied simultaneously to assess their individual and combined effects on an outcome.
Đăng bởi: Experimental Design

Factorial experiment
See also DoE.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Factorial Experiments
Experiments systematically investigating multiple factors and their interactions on a response variable.
Đăng bởi: Experimental Design

Factual approach
The factual approach to decision making is one of the eight quality management principles (see Quality management principles).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

FAI
See First Article Inspection.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Failure
Failure: The inability of an item, product or service to perform required functions on demand due to one or more defects.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Failure cost
Failure cost: The cost resulting from the occurrence of defects. One element of cost of quality or cost of poor quality. These costs can be categorized as internal or external.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Failure Mode
The specific way or manner in which a system, process, or product fails or malfunctions, leading to undesirable outcomes or defects.
Đăng bởi: Quality Control Measure

Failure mode analysis (FMA)
Failure mode analysis (FMA): A procedure to determine which malfunction symptoms appear immediately before or after a failure of a critical parameter in a system or product. After all possible causes are listed for each symptom, the product is designed to eliminate the problems.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
Method for risk analysis: The potential causes of failures, possible types of failures and expected effects of failures in a system and its element are analyzed. In the next step, a risk assessment is made and actions are defined for prioritized risks. After working off the actions defined in the first assessment, a second risk assessment is made in order to determine if the actions are productive. The risks are calculated and rated with the help of the risk priority number. NASA developed this method in the mid 1960s. The following types of FMEA are possible:
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Failure mode effects analysis (FMEA)
Failure mode effects analysis (FMEA): A systematized group of activities to recognize and evaluate the potential failure of a product or process and its effects, identify actions that could eliminate or reduce the occurrence of the potential failure and document the process.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Failure mode effects and criticality analysis (FMECA)
Failure mode effects and criticality analysis (FMECA): A procedure performed after a failure mode effects analysis to classify each potential failure effect according to its severity and probability of occurrence.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Fall Protection
Measures to prevent falling related injuries.
Đăng bởi: Safety Measure

Family and Individual Error Rate
A measure in statistics assessing errors' occurrence among groups (families) and within individuals or cases.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

FAST
Facilitated Application Specification Technique: A collaborative technique to quickly gather and define project requirements.
Đăng bởi: Project Management Tool

Fault
A unit’s lack of fulfillment, nonconforming fulfillment or incomplete fulfillment of a required function. (On the basis of DIN 40041:1990)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Fault tree analysis
Fault tree analysis is a procedure that allows probabilities to be estimated. This analysis is most commonly used in systems that are critical to safety or that are highly available. The fault tree is created by means of a system analysis that is conducted beforehand. Combinations of faults are also taken into consideration. This method requires precise knowledge of the system analysis and probability calculation.)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

FDA
U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Maryland USA. www.fda.gov
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Feedback
Feedback: Communication of information from customers or users related to a process or performance. Feedback is used to make decisions directed toward improving or adjusting a process or performance as necessary.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Feeder lines
Feeder lines: A series of special assembly lines that allow assemblers to perform preassembly tasks off the main production line. Performing certain processes off the main production line means fewer parts in the main assembly area, the availability of service ready components and assemblies in the main production area, improved quality and less lead time to build a product.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Feet for Inspection Points
The distance or spacing between inspection or measurement points in a system, often used in quality control or assessment.
Đăng bởi: Measurement Parameter

Feigenbaum
The American Armand V. Feigenbaum (born in 1922) is one of the pioneers and significant figures in quality science. His core activities were “Total Quality Control“ and “Simultaneous Engineering“.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

FI (TPM)
Focused Improvement: A fundamental pillar of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) focusing on continuous improvement initiatives.
Đăng bởi: TPM Pillar

Fiducial Confidence Interval
A statistical confidence interval derived using fiducial inference, an alternative to traditional confidence intervals.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

FIEV
Fédération des Industries des Equipements pour Véhicules. Organization of the French automotive supply industry. www.fiev.fr
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Fifo
FIFO (First In, First Out) and LIFO (Last In, First Out) are inventory management methods for stock rotation.
Đăng bởi: Inventory Control

Final inspection
The last of the quality inspections that is conducted before a unit is handed over to the customer or client.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Final Partition
In cluster analysis or partitioning methods, the final division or separation of data into distinct groups or clusters.
Đăng bởi: Data Analysis Method

Finding
Evaluation of an audit finding.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Finished Goods
Products or goods that have completed manufacturing processes and are ready for distribution or sale to customers.
Đăng bởi: Inventory Management

Fire Precautions
Measures to minimize fire risk in buildings.
Đăng bởi: Fire Safety Measures

Fire Prevention Plans
Plans to prevent and control fires at workplaces.
Đăng bởi: Safety Procedure

Fire Protection
Equipment and methods protecting against fires.
Đăng bởi: Equipment

First Aid
Skilled application of treatment during accidents/sudden illness using available materials.
Đăng bởi: Medical Assistance

First Aid/Cpr
Assistance for injured or sick individuals until medical treatment is available.
Đăng bởi: Safety Procedure

First article
Sample that is, without exception, manufactured with equipment and procedures (under the associated general conditions) that are planned for series manufacturing. The first article allows verification that the quality requirement on the offered product can be fulfilled, as far as this takes place under the series manufacturing conditions. The terms “initial sample“, “quality specimen“, “type sample“ are used synonymously. (On the basis of DIN 55350 15)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

First Article Inspection
Inspection of a first article in the framework of a sample inspection. (On the basis of DIN 55350 15)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

First In, First Out (Fifo)
Maintaining precise production and conveyance sequence.
Đăng bởi: Process Organization

First inspection
The first in a series of planned or authorized quality inspections. (On the basis of DIN 55350 17)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

First party audit
Internal audits that are carried out by the organization itself (also “Self assessment“), for example, for a management review or as the basis for the company‘s declaration of conformity. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

First pass rate
See Throughput yield.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

First Pass Yield
The proportion of units or processes that pass through a system successfully without defects or rework on the first attempt.
Đăng bởi: Quality Control Measure

First pass yield (FPY)
First pass yield (FPY): Also referred to as the quality rate, the percentage of units that completes a process and meets quality guidelines without being scrapped, rerun, retested, returned or diverted into an offline repair area. FPY is calculated by dividing the units entering the process minus the defective units by the total number of units entering the process.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

First time quality (FTQ)
First time quality (FTQ): Calculation of the percentage of good parts at the beginning of a production run.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

First Time Yield (FTY)
A quality measure indicating the percentage of units or processes passing through a system without the need for rework or correction.
Đăng bởi: Quality Control Measure

Fishbone diagram
Fishbone diagram: See “cause and effect diagram.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Fisher's Exact Test
A statistical test examining the association between categorical variables in contingency tables, suitable for small sample sizes or rare events.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Test

Fisher's Method
A statistical method used for combining the results of independent tests to determine overall significance.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Method

Fitness for use
Fitness for use: A term sometimes used to define the term “quality” to indicate the degree to which a product or service meets the requirements for its intended use.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Fitted Line Plot
A graphical representation displaying a line representing the best fit relationship between variables in a scatter plot.
Đăng bởi: Data Visualization

Fitted Regression Line
A line representing the best fit relationship between variables in a regression analysis, indicating the predicted values.
Đăng bởi: Regression Analysis

Fitted Values
Predicted or estimated values obtained from a statistical model used to represent outcomes for specific inputs or conditions.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Fitted Values for Median Po
Estimated or predicted values derived from a statistical model for median related analyses.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Fitted Values in Orthogonal Regression
Estimated values derived from an orthogonal regression model, indicating relationships between variables.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Five phase lean approach
Five phase lean approach: A systematic method for implementing lean manufacturing that helps improve the production process and sustains gains made in the production cycle in an area or plant. The five phases are: 1) stability (provides an environment with controlled process variables, decreased waste and increased business impact); 2) continuous flow (characterized by reduced work in process inventory, time loss and defects, and increased process flexibility and repeatable processes between workstations); 3) synchronous production (characterized by disciplined process repeatability and synchronization between operations and customer requirements); 4) pull system (creates an environment in which material replenishment links operations with customer demand); and 5) level production (reduces response time or changes in demand and upstream schedule variability).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Five S (5S)
Methodology for workplace organization involving Sort, Set in order, Shine, Standardize, Sustain.
Đăng bởi: Workplace Organization

Five S's (5S)
Five S's (5S): Five Japanese terms beginning with “s” used to create a workplace suited for visual control and lean production. Seiri means to separate needed tools, parts and instructions from unneeded materials and to remove the unneeded ones. Seiton means to neatly arrange and identify parts and tools for ease of use. Seiso means to conduct a cleanup campaign. Seiketsu means to conduct seiri, seiton and seiso daily to maintain a workplace in perfect condition. Shitsuke means to form the habit of always following the first four S’s. The Americanized version is “sort, straighten, scrub, standardize and sustain.” The 5S approach organizes the workplace, keeps it neat and clean, establishes standardized condition and maintains discipline to sustain the effort.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Five Ss
Workplace practices conducive to visual control and lean production: Sort, Straighten, Shine, Standardize, Sustain.
Đăng bởi: Lean Methodology

Five whys
Five whys: A technique for discovering the root causes of a problem and showing the relationship of causes by repeatedly asking the question, “Why?” A repetitive questioning technique to probe deeper to surface the root cause of a problem. The number of times “why” is asked depends on when the true root cause is reached.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Fixed and Random Factors
In experimental design, fixed factors represent variables with constant levels, while random factors have variable levels or conditions.
Đăng bởi: Experimental Design

Fixed costs
Term for the (total) costs that do not change with the capacity utilization level. These are also called time related costs.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Flag
An indicator or marker used to highlight specific data points or conditions that need attention or further investigation.
Đăng bởi: Data Visualization

Flammable & Combustible Liquids
Easily ignitable liquids in the air at ambient temperatures.
Đăng bởi: Health Hazard

Floor
The lower surface or level of a room or building, often referenced in manufacturing layouts or facility planning.
Đăng bởi: Physical Structure

Floor Marking
Floor Marking uses designated colors to signify areas, paths, or safety zones in the workplace for clarity and safety.
Đăng bởi: Safety

Flow
Flow: The progressive achievement of tasks along the value stream so a product proceeds from design to launch, order to delivery and raw to finished materials in the hands of the customer with no stoppages, scrap or backflows.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Flow Cell
A production layout or system organizing workstations in a sequence to promote efficient and continuous flow in manufacturing.
Đăng bởi: Manufacturing Method

Flow Production
A manufacturing method focusing on continuous production, minimizing interruptions or downtime to achieve a smooth flow of products.
Đăng bởi: Manufacturing Technique

Flowchart
Flowchart: A graphical representation of the steps in a process. Flowcharts are drawn to better understand processes. One of the “seven tools of quality” (see listing).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

FMEA
See Failure Mode and Effects Analysis.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Fmea (Failure Modes And Effects Analysis)
Method to identify system failure modes and their effects.
Đăng bởi: Failure Mode Analysis

FMECA
Failure Mode, Effect and Criticality Analysis. The US military developed the FMEA in 1949 under the name FMECA. It was used for the systematic development of reliability with examination of system and equipment failures.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Focus group
Focus group: A qualitative discussion group, usually of eight to 10 people, that is invited from a segment of the customer base to discuss an existing or planned product, service or process, led by a facilitator working from predetermined questions.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Follow up audit
A follow up audit is conducted when one or more (critical) deviations (nonconformities) occur in the audit that require a longer time for correction. The effective realization of the corrective actions and consequently elimination of the deviation(s) can be proven in the follow up audit, for example. As a result a certificate can be issued.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Force field analysis
Force field analysis: A technique for analyzing what aids or hinders an organization in reaching an objective. An arrow pointing to an objective is drawn down the middle of a piece of paper. The factors that will aid the objective’s achievement, called the driving forces, are listed on the left side of the arrow. The factors that will hinder its achievement, called the restraining forces, are listed on the right side of the arrow.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Forecasted Demand
The predicted or estimated future demand for products or services based on analysis or forecasting methods.
Đăng bởi: Demand Forecasting

Forecasting
The process of predicting or estimating future outcomes, trends, or demand based on historical data, models, or analysis.
Đăng bởi: Prediction Method

Foundation Of Kaizen™
Fundamental principles and concepts forming the basis of Kaizen.
Đăng bởi: Continuous Improvement

Four Absolutes of Quality Management
Core principles in quality management emphasizing the importance of quality in products or services: Performance, Features, Reliability, and Conformance.
Đăng bởi: Quality Management

FQS
Forschungsgemeinschaft für Qualität e.V., Frankfurt. www.fqs.de
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Fractional Factorial Design
An experimental design strategy involving a subset of the complete factorial design to evaluate the most influential factors efficiently.
Đăng bởi: Experimental Design

Frequency
Number indicating how often a certain result or event occurs.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Frequency Data
Data characterized by counts or occurrences of specific events or categories, typically analyzed using frequency distributions.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Data Type

Frequency distribution
Distribution of actual values.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Frequency distribution (statistical)
Frequency distribution (statistical): A table that graphically presents a large volume of data so the central tendency (such as the average or mean) and distribution are clearly displayed.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Frequency Rate
Injury rate per 100,000 total hours worked.
Đăng bởi: Workplace Injury Rate Analysis

Friedman's Test
A non parametric statistical test used to determine differences between multiple groups or treatments based on ranked data.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Test

Front Line Command
Single Service Commands responsible for operating, administration, or training outside joint operations.
Đăng bởi: Military Command Structure

Fsims
Functional Safety Information Management System (RAF).
Đăng bởi: Information Management System

FTA
See Fault tree analysis.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Fta (Fault Tree Analysis)
Method for analyzing causes of hazardous events in complex systems.
Đăng bởi: Hazard Analysis and Reliability

FTC
Federal Trade Commission: A U.S. government agency overseeing consumer protection and antitrust laws to promote fair competition.
Đăng bởi: Regulatory Agency

FTP
File Transfer Protocol: A standard network protocol used for transferring files between a client and a server on a computer network.
Đăng bởi: Networking Protocol

Full Factorial Design
An experimental design method evaluating all possible combinations of factors and levels to analyze their effects on outcomes.
Đăng bởi: Experimental Design

Full Rank
A condition in linear algebra or regression analysis where a matrix or system has maximal rank or independence among its rows or columns.
Đăng bởi: Mathematical Concept

Fume
Solid material vaporized at high temperatures, forming tiny particles.
Đăng bởi: Airborne Hazard

Function
Function: A group of related actions contributing to a larger action.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Functional layout
Functional layout: The practice of grouping machines (such as grinding machines) or activities (such as order entry) by type of operation performed.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Functional Safety
Property of engineered systems ensuring safety through functions performed.
Đăng bởi: System Safety Engineering

Functional verification
Functional verification: Testing to ensure a part conforms to all engineering performance and material requirements.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Funnel experiment
Funnel experiment: An experiment that demonstrates the effects of tampering. Marbles are dropped through a funnel in an attempt to hit a flat surfaced target below. The experiment shows that adjusting a stable process to compensate for an undesirable result or an extraordinarily good result will produce output that is worse than if the process had been left alone.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Furyou
Defect
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Furyou Hin
Defective item, reject, discrepant item
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Future State Map
A visual representation or diagram illustrating the envisioned or desired future state of a process or system after improvements.
Đăng bởi: Process Improvement

G

Gage
A measuring instrument or device used to measure, evaluate, or assess various parameters or dimensions accurately.
Đăng bởi: Measurement Equipment

Gage Linearity and Bias Study
An analysis or study assessing a measuring device's linearity and bias to ensure accurate and consistent measurements.
Đăng bởi: Measurement Assessment

Gage R and R Study
Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility Study: An assessment evaluating the reliability and consistency of a measurement system.
Đăng bởi: Measurement Assessment

Gage repeatability and reproducibility (GR&R)
Gage repeatability and reproducibility (GR&R): The evaluation of a gauging instrument’s accuracy by determining whether its measurements are repeatable (there is close agreement among a number of consecutive measurements of the output for the same value of the input under the same operating conditions) and reproducible (there is close agreement among repeated measurements of the output for the same value of input made under the same operating conditions over a period of time).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Gage Run Chart
A graphical representation displaying measurements or values obtained from a measurement system over time, assessing stability and consistency.
Đăng bởi: Measurement Visualization

Gage Tolerance
The acceptable or specified range of variation or deviation permitted in measurements obtained from a measuring device or system.
Đăng bởi: Measurement Standard

Gaichuu Buhin Nounyuu Kanban
Supplier KANBAN system
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Gain sharing
Gain sharing: A reward system that shares the monetary results of productivity gains among owners and employees.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Gallery Walk
A collaborative learning or problem solving technique where participants review and provide feedback on displayed materials or ideas in a gallery like setting.
Đăng bởi: Group Discussion Method

Gamma
A statistical distribution parameter or shape factor influencing the shape of various probability distributions like the gamma distribution.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Parameter

Gamma Distribution
A continuous probability distribution describing the time until an event's occurrence, often used in reliability analysis or waiting times.
Đăng bởi: Probability Distribution

Gantt Chart
A project management tool or chart displaying tasks, timelines, and progress in a project, representing activities against time.
Đăng bởi: Project Management Tool

Gap Analysis
A strategic assessment or comparison identifying gaps or discrepancies between current and desired states to facilitate improvements or changes.
Đăng bởi: Strategic Analysis

Gas
Substance similar to air that becomes airborne at room temperature, diffusing rapidly.
Đăng bởi: Airborne Substances

Gatekeeper
Gatekeeper: A timekeeper; in team meetings, a designated individual who helps monitor the team’s use of allocated time.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Gaussian normal distribution
See Normal distribution.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Gemba
A Japanese term referring to the practice of going to the actual place or location where work is done to understand processes and identify improvements.
Đăng bởi: Lean Management Principle

Gembutsu
Actual item, real thing
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Gemjitsu
True facts (and no assumptions). The “true fact“ can be determined by data collection in the problem solving process. Nonconformity and rejection rates and developments over time are used here as performance figures. (Term that originated in Japan and one of the “3Gs“).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

General Full Factorial
A complete experimental design considering all possible combinations of factors and levels, assessing their effects on outcomes.
Đăng bởi: Experimental Design

General Linear Models
Statistical models or regression models encompassing linear relationships between variables, allowing for multiple predictors or factors.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Analysis

Generally accepted rules of technology
Technical rules for the development and execution of physical structures or technical objects. These rules are seen as theoretically correct from a scientific point of view and are applied in practice. They extend beyond the applicable technical regulations and standards.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Genjitsu
Reality
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T)
Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T): A set of rules and standard symbols to define part features and relationships on an engineering drawing depicting the geometric relationship of part features and allowing the maximum tolerance that permits full function of the product.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Geometric Distribution
A probability distribution describing the number of trials needed to achieve the first success in a sequence of independent trials.
Đăng bởi: Probability Distribution

Geometric Mean
A measure of central tendency calculated by taking the nth root of the product of n numbers, used for skewed or log normally distributed data.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

George M. Low Trophy
George M. Low Trophy: An award presented by NASA to NASA aerospace industry contractors, subcontractors and suppliers that consistently maintain and improve the quality of their products and services. George M. Low was the NASA administrator for nearly three decades.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Geräte und Produktsicherheitsgesetz
German Equipment and Product Safety Act. In Germany, this law regulates the placement of products on the market and the display of products, as well as the construction and operation of systems that require monitoring. The Geräte und Produktsicherheitsgesetz superseded the Produktsicherheitsgesetz (ProdSG – Product Safety Act) and the Gerätesicherheitsgesetz (GSG – Equipment Safety Act) on May 1, 2004. This Act implemented the European directive on general product safety in Germany into national law.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Ghs Hazard Communication Standards
Information on safe handling of hazardous equipment.
Đăng bởi: Regulation

Global quality
Global quality: The systematic design and implementation of quality processes across the world, based on information sharing and best practices.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Glossary Overview.htm
A web based overview or index presenting definitions and explanations of terms, concepts, or jargon used in a specific domain or context.
Đăng bởi: Information Resource

GLP
See Good Laboratory Practice.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

GMP
See Good Manufacturing Practice.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Go Esu
5 S (SEIRI, SEITON, SEISO, SEIKETSU, SHITSUKE), 5 points of workplace organization and maintenance
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Go Kai No
Five "whys" and one H (who, what, where, when why and how),
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Go/no go
Go/no go: State of a unit or product. Two parameters are possible: go (conforms to specifications) and no go (does not conform to specifications).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Goal
Goal: A broad statement describing a desired future condition or achievement without being specific about how much and when.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Goal Response Optimization
The process of optimizing responses or outcomes to achieve specific objectives or goals within a system or process.
Đăng bởi: Optimization Technique

Goal Statement
A clear and concise statement outlining specific objectives or targets to be achieved, guiding initiatives or projects.
Đăng bởi: Project Management

Good Laboratory Practice
Quality assurance system that deals with the organizational flow and general conditions under which non clinical safety inspections relevant to health and the environment are planned, conducted and monitored. GLP also deals with the recording, archiving and reporting with regard to the inspections. (GLP principles of the OECD, Organisation for Economic Co Operation and Development)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Good laboratory practices (GLP)
Good laboratory practices (GLP): A quality system (for example, 21 CFR, part 58) for labs and organizations to use to ensure the uniformity, consistency, reliability, reproducibility, quality and integrity of testing performed. Promoted by the Organization for Economic Co operation and Development (OECD) and some regulatory agencies in the world.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Good Manufacturing Practice
This standard from the WHO places binding requirements on the manufacturers of food and medicinal products. GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) has the nature of a law in the health sector.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Good manufacturing practices (GMP)
Good manufacturing practices (GMP): A minimum set of practices recommended or required by some regulatory agencies (for example, 21 CFR, parts 808, 812 and 820) for manufacturers to meet to ensure their products consistently meet requirements for their intended use.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Good Practice
Standards recognized by authoritative bodies, meeting legislative requirements or industry standards.
Đăng bởi: Compliance Standard

Goodman Kruskal Statistics
A statistical method used to compare ranked data or to assess associations between two or more groups.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Analysis

Goodness of Fit Test
A statistical test evaluating how well an observed distribution fits a theoretical distribution or model.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Test

GPSG
See Geräte und Produktsicherheitsgesetz.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

GQW
Gesellschaft für Qualitätswissenschaft e.V., at the Technische Universität Berlin, www.tu cottbus.de/gqw
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Grade
Measure of value or class that describes the various quality requirements placed on products, processes or systems with the same functional use. Example: Hotel category according to stars or classes in plane tickets (e.g., first, business or economy class). (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Grand Mean
The arithmetic mean or average calculated across multiple groups or datasets, representing a combined average.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Graph Annotation
Text or labels added to a graph or chart to provide additional information or context for data visualization.
Đăng bởi: Data Visualization

Graph File Format
The file format or structure used to save or store graphical data, determining compatibility and readability.
Đăng bởi: File Management

Graph Layout Tool
Software or tools facilitating the arrangement and organization of elements within graphs or visual displays.
Đăng bởi: Graphical Tool

Graph Region
A specified area or segment within a graph or chart displaying data or information related to a particular region.
Đăng bởi: Data Visualization

Graph Scale
The numerical or proportional representation of values on axes or dimensions within a graph or chart.
Đăng bởi: Data Representation

Graph Title
A descriptive title given to a graph or chart, summarizing the content or purpose of the visual representation.
Đăng bởi: Data Visualization

Green Belt
In Six Sigma, an individual trained in problem solving and process improvement techniques, usually working on improvement projects.
Đăng bởi: Six Sigma Role

Green Belt (GB)
Green Belt (GB): An employee who has been trained in the Six Sigma improvement method and can lead a process improvement or quality improvement team as part of his or her full time job.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Group
A collection of individuals or items brought together based on common characteristics, interests, or criteria.
Đăng bởi: Organizational Structure

Group dynamic
Group dynamic: The interaction (behavior) of individuals within a team meeting.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Group Technology Matrix
A matrix illustrating similarities and relationships between parts or components in a manufacturing or production process.
Đăng bởi: Manufacturing Method

Group Wide Quality Control (Gwqc)
Quality control system covering an entire organization.
Đăng bởi: Quality Management

Group work
Cooperation among individual people on a specific topic.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Groupthink
Groupthink: A situation in which critical information is withheld from the team because individual members censor or restrain themselves, either because they believe their concerns are not worth discussing or because they are afraid of confrontation. Occurs when most or all team members coalesce in supporting an idea or decision that hasn’t been fully explored.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

GS
Geprüfte Sicherheit [Tested Safety]. See GS mark.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

GS mark
The GS mark is an indicator of “Tested Safety“. The mark was introduced in 1977 and is based on the Geräte und Produktsicherheitsgesetz (GPSG – Equipment and Product Safety Act), according to which the Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Sozialordnung (German Federal Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs) can designate testing centers that have the right to issue the GS mark for devices and technical work materials, as far as these are covered by the GPSG. This includes products for commercial and private requirements.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Guarantee
Also liability for defects. Certain legal consequences and demands to which the purchaser is entitled in the framework of a sales agreement in the event that the seller has supplied unsatisfactory goods or items. A contract for work and services also provides a guarantee for deficiencies in the work produced. A warranty differs from the legally stipulated guarantee because there is no legal obligation to give a warranty promise. An EU directive specifies minimum standards for the guarantee in the case of commercial sale to private end customers. In principle, claims exist against the seller, but not against the manufacturer of the goods.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Guidance / Guidance Material
Advice or information providing a consistent approach or explanation.
Đăng bởi: Advisory/Explanation

Guideline document
Document with requirements for the offered product and instructions for the activities to be carried out.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Guidelines
Recommendation or suggestions that are described in documents. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

H

HACCP
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points. HACCP is a systematic tool in the framework of food safety management. It is used to define preventive measures and consequently to avoid dangers in association with food (e.g., illnesses). HACCP roughly means the analysis of health hazards and the determination of critical points.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

HACCP Approach
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points: A systematic preventive approach ensuring food safety in the food production process.
Đăng bởi: Food Safety Management

Haiya Houshiki
On call delivery
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Half Normal Plot
A graphical representation used in experimental design to assess the significance of effects in screening experiments.
Đăng bởi: Experimental Analysis

HALO effect
When assessing a person (“first impression“) one unconsciously looks for the other person‘s most striking characteristic and then generalizes this feature or trait.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Hamidashi Hin
Overflow parts, excess stock on line
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Hanare Kojima
Isolated jobsite
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Hand And Power Tools
Tools powered manually or electrically needing safety measures.
Đăng bởi: Equipment

Hand Arm Vibration
Exposure to vibration from hand held tools or controls, including vibrations from vehicle controls.
Đăng bởi: Vibration Exposure

Hand Arm Vibration Syndrome
Conditions affecting nerves, blood vessels, muscles due to vibration damage.
Đăng bởi: Occupational Health Classification

Handoff
The transfer of information, tasks, or responsibilities from one person, group, or phase to another within a process or project.
Đăng bởi: Process Transition

Hane Dashi
HANE DASHI (pronounced hah nay dah shee), automatic ejection
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Hanedashi
In Lean manufacturing, a concept referring to the removal of unnecessary items or tools from the workplace to enhance efficiency.
Đăng bởi: Lean Methodology

Hansei
A Japanese term for self reflection or introspection, focusing on acknowledging mistakes or opportunities for improvement.
Đăng bởi: Continuous Improvement

Hard to Change Factor
Factors or variables within a system or process that are particularly difficult or challenging to modify or improve.
Đăng bởi: Process Analysis

Hardware
Material product whose quantity represents a countable characteristic. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Hardware (e.g., mechanical engine part)
Many products consist of elements from various generic product categories. The dominant element determines whether the product is called a service, software, hardware or processed material. For example, a car (in the sense of an offered product) comprises hardware (e.g., the tires), processed materials (e.g., fuel, coolant), software (e.g., engine control software, operating manual) and service (e.g., the dealer‘s explanations of correct operation).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Harm
Adverse effect on a person, environment, or property.
Đăng bởi: Condition/Impact

Hawthorne effect
Hawthorne effect: When people modify their behavior in response to their awareness of being observed. This term is attributed to sociologist Henry Landsberger, who analyzed this behavior during experiments at the Hawthorne Works, a Western Electric factory outside Chicago.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Hazan (Hazard Analysis)
Systematic hazard identification process.
Đăng bởi: Hazard Identification and Assessment

Hazard
Potential source of harm.
Đăng bởi: Hazard Identification and Management

Hazard Analysis
Detailed analysis of system hazards and accidents.
Đăng bởi: Risk Analysis

Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP)
Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP): A quality management system for effectively and efficiently ensuring farm to table food safety in the United States. HACCP regulations for various sectors are established by the Department of Agriculture and the Food and Drug Administration.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Hazard Determination
Evaluating chemicals to determine if they are hazardous.
Đăng bởi: Safety Procedure

Hazard Identification
Process recognizing existing hazards and defining their characteristics.
Đăng bởi: Risk Identification

Hazard Plot
A graphical representation displaying potential hazards or risks associated with a process, system, or operation.
Đăng bởi: Risk Assessment

Hazardous Event
Occurrence of a hazard leading to potential safety risks.
Đăng bởi: Safety Risk Event Identification

Hazardous Waste Operations
Cleaning hazardous materials at uncontrolled waste sites.
Đăng bởi: Safety Procedure

Hazid (Hazard Identification)
Hazard Identification process.
Đăng bởi: Hazard Identification in Safety

HAZOP
Hazard and Operability Study: A systematic analysis method identifying potential hazards and operability issues in industrial processes.
Đăng bởi: Risk Management

Hazop (Hazard And Operability Study)
Method to identify deviations from design intent and their consequences.
Đăng bởi: Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment

Hazwoper
Guidelines for regulating hazardous waste operations and employee protection.
Đăng bởi: Regulation

Head Of Establishment
Accountable person with control over access and authority within a specified MOD establishment.
Đăng bởi: Role/Responsibility

Health
State of complete physical, mental, and social well being.
Đăng bởi: Well being Classification

Health And Safety Executive
UK organization for workplace health, safety, and welfare regulation.
Đăng bởi: Regulatory Authority

Health Surveillance
Close monitoring of an individual's overall health.
Đăng bởi: Health Monitoring

Health, Safety And Environmental Protection
Collection of laws, rules, and processes protecting people and the environment in the workplace.
Đăng bởi: Legislation/Guidance

Heijun Ka
HEIJUNKA (pronounced hey June kah), production smoothing, leveled production
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Heijunka
In Lean manufacturing, a leveling or smoothing technique used to balance production by aligning workloads and processes.
Đăng bởi: Lean Production Method

Help Hinder
A technique or analysis focusing on identifying elements or factors that either assist or impede progress toward a goal or objective.
Đăng bởi: Problem Analysis

Heywood Case
A situation in statistical modeling where estimated parameters or results violate logical or theoretical constraints.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Modeling

Hf (Hazards Forum)
Forum focusing on safety hazards.
Đăng bởi: Safety Hazard Discussion and Research

HGB
Handelsgesetzbuch [German Commercial Code].
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Hidden Factory
Unproductive or unnoticed areas within an organization where waste, inefficiency, or unutilized potential exists.
Đăng bởi: Lean Management Principle

Hierarchy Of Controls
Sequentially ranked control measures from elimination to personal protective equipment (PPE).
Đăng bởi: Control Measure Classification

High level structure
Future identical clause structure of all management system standards with partly identical text passages in the clauses dealing with requirements. This high level structure is aimed at making better use of synergies between different disciplines. The management system standards differ with respect to their scope and objectives.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Highly accelerated life test (HALT)
Highly accelerated life test (HALT): A process for uncovering design defects and weaknesses in electronic and mechanical assemblies using a vibration system combined with rapid high and low temperature changes. The purpose of HALT is to optimize product reliability by identifying the functional and destructive limits of a product at an early stage in product development.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Highly accelerated stress audits (HASA)
Highly accelerated stress audits (HASA): A technique in which a sample of parts (as opposed to 100% of the production, as in HASS) is subjected to stresses similar to the levels and duration for HALT. In monitoring the production process, the intent of HASA is to detect slight shifts in the attributes of the product so corrective actions can be taken and implemented before the performance of outgoing product approaches the specifications.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Highly accelerated stress screening (HASS)
Highly accelerated stress screening (HASS): A technique for production screening that rapidly exposes process or production flaws in products. Its purpose is to expose a product to optimized production screens without affecting product reliability. Unlike HALT, HASS uses nondestructive stresses of extreme temperatures and temperature change rates with vibration.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Hikitori Kanban
Parts withdrawal KANBAN
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Hinges
Specific points in a boxplot or statistical diagram representing quartiles or outliers in a dataset's distribution.
Đăng bởi: Data Visualization

Histogram
A graphical representation displaying the frequency distribution of continuous data through bars or bins.
Đăng bởi: Data Visualization

Histogram Glossary
A compilation or explanation of terms related to histograms, their components, or interpretations.
Đăng bởi: Information Resource

Histogram or Frequency Plot
An alternative name for a histogram, used to visualize the frequency distribution of data.
Đăng bởi: Data Visualization

Historical Parameters
Parameters or indicators derived from past data or historical trends used for analysis, forecasting, or decision making.
Đăng bởi: Data Analysis

Hito Keta
In under 10 minutes, single minute (as in SMED, Single Minute Exchange of Dies)
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

HLS
See High level structure.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Hoists
Devices for lifting and lowering loads using ropes or chains.
Đăng bởi: Equipment

Holiday
Scheduled off time due to holidays.
Đăng bởi: Downtime Factor

Honorary member, CiCC
Honorary member, CiCC: CiCC’s highest grade of membership. As specified in CiCC’s constitution, “An honorary member shall have rendered acknowledged eminent service to the quality profession or the allied arts and sciences.” To attain this level, an individual must be nominated by at least 10 regular members and must be approved unanimously by the board of directors.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Horizontal Replication
The process or strategy of duplicating or replicating data across multiple servers or databases for redundancy or distribution.
Đăng bởi: Data Management

Hoshin Kanri
A strategic planning method in Lean management focused on setting and aligning goals throughout an organization.
Đăng bởi: Strategic Planning

Hoshin planning
Hoshin planning: Breakthrough planning. A Japanese strategic planning process in which an organization develops up to four vision statements that indicate where the organization should be in the next five years. Organizational goals and work plans are developed based on the vision statements. Periodic submitted audits are then conducted to monitor progress. Also see “value stream.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Hoshin process
See Management by Policy.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Hospitalised ('Bedded Down')
Admitted to a hospital for treatment, sometimes onboard a vessel.
Đăng bởi: Medical Classification

Hotelling's T Squared Test
A statistical test used for comparing means or vectors of multivariate data, considering differences between groups or treatments.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Test

Hotelling's T2 model
Hotelling's T2 model: A multivariate profile for detecting differential expressions in microarrays.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

House of quality
House of quality: A product planning matrix, somewhat resembling a house, that is developed during quality function deployment and shows the relationship of customer requirements to the means of achieving these requirements.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Hsc (Health And Safety Commission)
Statutory body for health and safety regulation.
Đăng bởi: Safety Regulatory Body

Hse (Health And Safety Executive)
Statutory body for health and safety enforcement and support.
Đăng bởi: Safety Regulatory and Support Body

Hsl (Health And Safety Laboratory)
Laboratory supporting health and safety research.
Đăng bởi: Safety Research and Testing

Hspag (Health And Safety Policy Advisory Group)
Policy advisory group for health and safety.
Đăng bởi: Safety Policy Advisory Group

Hsu's MCB
Hsu's Multiple Comparison Boundaries: Statistical boundaries used in multiple comparisons to control the familywise error rate.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Analysis

Hswa (Health And Safety At Work Act 1974)
Legislation governing health and safety at work.
Đăng bởi: Safety Legal Framework

Huddle Meetings
Collaborative or impromptu team meetings focusing on quick discussions, updates, or problem solving within a work environment.
Đăng bởi: Team Communication

Hyoujun Sagyou
Standardized work
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Hyoujun Sagyou Hyou
Standardized work sheet, standard work layout
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Hyoujun Sagyou Kumiawase Hyou
Standardized work combination sheet
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Hyoujun Temochi
Standard in process stock, standard work in process
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Hyperbolic Trigonometry Functions
Mathematical functions, such as hyperbolic sine or cosine, dealing with hyperbolic angles and relationships.
Đăng bởi: Mathematical Functions

Hypergeometric Distribution
A probability distribution describing the probability of specific successes in a fixed number of draws from a finite population.
Đăng bởi: Probability Distribution

Hypothesis
See also: Hypothesis test.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Hypothesis Statement
A statement or proposition outlining an assumption or claim to be tested or validated through analysis or experimentation.
Đăng bởi: Research Design

Hypothesis Test
A statistical test evaluating the validity or significance of an assumption or hypothesis regarding a population or dataset.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Analysis

Hypothesis Testing
The statistical process of testing or assessing assumptions or claims about a population or dataset using sample data.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Analysis

Hypothesis, Null
A hypothesis stating no significant difference or relationship between variables or conditions being tested.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Analysis

I

I MR Chart
Individual and Moving Range Chart: A control chart used to monitor processes with individual measurements and their ranges.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Control Tool

I MR RS Chart
Individual and Moving Range Rundown and Selection Chart: A tool used to evaluate data trends or patterns in a process.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Analysis

IATF
International Automotive Task Force. Workgroup of the large automakers and their suppliers for the harmonization of nationally introduced quality management methods and of the quality management standards.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

IATF 16949
IATF 16949: A harmonized set of supplier quality management system requirements for automotive suppliers released in October 2016 by the International Automotive Task Force (IATF). IATF 16949 replaced ISO/TS 16949.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Ibento
Event, workshop
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

ICC
International Chamber of Commerce.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

IDDOV
Identify – Define – Design – Optimize – Validate
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

IDEA
Identify – Design – Evaluate – Affirm
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Idea creation tools
Idea creation tools: Tools that encourage thinking and organization of new ideas around issues or opportunities, either individually or with other people. Examples are brainstorming, the Delphi method, role playing, TRIZ and visioning.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Identifiable Living Individual
Living individual identifiable by specific factors or identifiers.
Đăng bởi: Data Identification

IDOV
Identify – Design – Optimize – Validate
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

IEC
International Electrotechnical Commission. International standardization committee with headquarters in Geneva for standards in the field of electrical engineering and electronics.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

IECQ
IEC Quality Assessment System for Electronic Components.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

IFC
Initial Fill Capacity: A measure or assessment determining the initial capacity or volume of a reservoir, container, or system.
Đăng bởi: Capacity Assessment

Iidb (Industrial Injuries Disablement Benefit)
Statistics on industrial injuries disablement benefits.
Đăng bởi: Industrial Injury Statistics

Ikko Nagare
One piece at a time production, one piece flow
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

ILEP
Initiative Ludwig Erhard Preis – Auszeichnung für Spitzenleistungen im Wettbewerb e.V., Oberursel bei Frankfurt. Organization that awards the Ludwig Erhard Prize each year. www. ilep.de
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Imagineering
Imagineering: Developing in the mind’s eye a process without waste.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Impact effort matrix
Impact effort matrix: A technique for determining the best action to take once the root cause of a problem has been identified. By creating a matrix with four quadrants and plotting the potential solutions based on the effort required to implement (x axis) and the impact (y axis), the solutions falling into the upper left hand quadrant will be the best action to take.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Imperfection
Imperfection: A quality characteristic’s departure from its intended level or state without any association to conformance to specification, requirements or to the usability of a product or service. Also see “blemish,” “defect” and “nonconformity.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Implementation Team
A dedicated team responsible for executing or deploying plans, strategies, or projects within an organization.
Đăng bởi: Project Management

Improve
The phase within the DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) methodology in Six Sigma focusing on implementing solutions and improvements.
Đăng bởi: Six Sigma Methodology

Improve Phase
A stage in problem solving methodologies (e.g., DMAIC, PDCA) concentrating on implementing and validating improvement initiatives.
Đăng bởi: Process Improvement

Improvement
Improvement: The positive effect of a process change effort.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Improvement Activity
Actions or initiatives undertaken to enhance processes, systems, or outcomes towards better performance or efficiency.
Đăng bởi: Process Enhancement

Improvement Kata
A structured routine or method in Lean thinking for continuous improvement through deliberate practice and experimentation.
Đăng bởi: Lean Methodology

Improvement Notice
Means to secure compliance with health and safety law.
Đăng bởi: Compliance Enforcement in Safety

Improvement Ratio Amount
A measure or ratio assessing the amount or magnitude of improvement achieved in a process or system.
Đăng bởi: Performance Metric

IMS
See Integrated management system.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

In control process
In control process: A process in which the statistical measure being evaluated is in a state of statistical control; in other words, the variations among the observed sampling results can be attributed to a constant system of chance causes. Also see “out of control process.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

In process inspection
Quality inspection that is performed during the manufacture or processing of a unit. (On the basis of DIN 55350 17)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Incidence Rate
Accident rate per 1000 persons employed.
Đăng bởi: Workplace Incident Rate Analysis

Incident
Unplanned event potentially leading to an accident.
Đăng bởi: Incident Identification and Prevention

Incoming inspection
Inspection of incoming goods at the request and with the participation of the customer or its representative. (On the basis of DIN 55350 17)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Incremental improvement
Incremental improvement: Improvement implemented on a continual basis.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Independent Sample
A set of observations or data points drawn from a population or group independently of other samples, avoiding bias or influence.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Sampling

Independent Trial
A trial or experiment conducted separately from others, not influenced or affected by previous or concurrent trials.
Đăng bởi: Experimental Method

Indicator Variables
Variables serving as indicators or proxies for other phenomena or factors, aiding in measurement or prediction.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Variables

Indicators
Indicators: Established measures to determine how well an organization is meeting its customers’ needs and other operational and financial performance expectations.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Indirect communication behavior
Also “Active listening“. Instead of steering the talk according to his/her own ideas, the auditor guides it according to what he/she can gather from the statements of the employee or auditee. The auditor attempts to see the content through the employee‘s eyes in order to be able to understand the employee‘s actions. This is the form of discussion that allows the employee to contribute the most.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Indirect Costs
Costs not directly attributable to a specific activity, product, or service but contribute to overall expenses or operations.
Đăng bởi: Cost Accounting

Individual and Joint Confidence Level
Confidence levels for individual and combined events or occurrences indicating the likelihood of events happening.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Individual Distribution Identification
The identification or recognition of individual distributions or data patterns within a dataset or statistical analysis.
Đăng bởi: Data Analysis

Individual Value Plot
A plot or graphical representation displaying individual data values to identify trends, patterns, or outliers.
Đăng bởi: Data Visualization

Individuals Chart
A control chart used to monitor individual measurements or data points to assess process stability and variability.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Control Tool

Industrial Hygiene
Controlling and protecting employees from health and safety hazards.
Đăng bởi: Safety Measure

Influential Observation
A data point or observation significantly affecting statistical analysis, potentially influencing results or conclusions.
Đăng bởi: Data Analysis

Information
Significant data.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Information flow
Information flow: The dissemination of information for taking a specific product from order entry through detailed scheduling to delivery. Also see “value stream.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Information management
Management in the company with regard to information and communication: it comprises all management tasks related to information and communication.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Informative inspection
Informative inspection: A form of inspection for determining nonconforming product. Also see “judgment inspection.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Infrastructure
Basic equipment of a human resources, material or institutional manner (e.g., also services) that are necessary in order for an organization to function. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Ingestion
Intake of material through the mouth.
Đăng bởi: Exposure via Ingestion

Inhalation
The process of breathing in air or substances into the lungs.
Đăng bởi: Exposure Route

Inherent characteristic
Inherent means “existing as an essential constituent or characteristic of a unit.“ An inherent characteristic is one that is permanently associated with a unit.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Initial Clean
An initial cleaning process or step usually performed before starting a task, operation, or analysis to ensure a clean and organized workspace or dataset.
Đăng bởi: Process Preparation

Innovation
Innovation: New value created at an optimal cost—not at any cost—through the development of new products, services or processes.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Innovative process chain optimization
System for optimizing process chains: quality techniques and creativity techniques are networked.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Input
Information, data, or resources provided or utilized as an input into a system, process, or operation for desired outcomes.
Đăng bởi: Process Component

Input Measures
Specific measures or metrics used to evaluate or assess inputs contributing to a process, system, or project.
Đăng bởi: Performance Metrics

Inputs
Inputs: The products, services and material obtained from suppliers to produce the outputs delivered to customers.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Inspection
Inspection: A verification activity. For example, measuring, examining, testing and gauging one or more characteristics of a product or service and comparing the results with specified requirements to determine whether conformity is achieved for each characteristic.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Inspection by attributes
A decision as to whether or not the inspection lot can be accepted is made on the basis of the determined number of nonconforming units or the number of nonconformities in a sample. (On the basis of ISO 3534 2)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Inspection by variables
Acceptance sampling inspection: Inspecting an item by measuring the magnitude of one or more of its characteristics. (On the basis of ISO 3534 2)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Inspection characteristic
Property that is inspected. (On the basis of DIN 55350 12)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Inspection cost
Inspection cost: The cost associated with inspecting a product to ensure it meets the internal or external customer’s needs and requirements; an appraisal cost.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Inspection costs
Costs due to inspections conducted as scheduled (and not caused by nonconformities). Inspection costs include the costs in all of the organization‘s areas for the deployed personnel for inspections, the associated inspection, measuring and test equipment and the control of inspection, measuring and test equipment. Proportional costs for inspection activities are then to be assessed when inspection and other activities overlap in time. (On the basis of DIN 555350 11)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Inspection instruction
Inspection plan with stipulations regarding the inspection activities and inspection processes.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Inspection list
The inspection list (check sheet) is a quality tool (Q 7) for recording data (nonconformities) efficiently and for presenting them clearly according to the type and number. The data are assigned to a nonconformity category and quantitatively recorded in a table. Problems in paint system
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Inspection lot
Inspection lot: A collection of similar units or a specific quantity of similar material offered for inspection and acceptance at one time.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Inspection plan
Specification for a single inspection or for a series of inspections. Inspection plans can contain different elements, such as inspection specification, inspection instruction and inspection schedule or they can refer to the same. This depends on the use of language in the particular organization. (On the basis of DIN 55350 11)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Inspection schedule
Inspection plan stipulating of the sequence of inspections.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Inspection specification
Inspection plan with stipulations regarding inspection engineering.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Inspection status
Status of a unit. It indicates which inspection or inspections were conducted on this unit, and with which results. (On the basis of DIN 55350 11)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Inspection, 100%
Inspection, 100%: Inspection of all the units in the lot or batch.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Inspection, curtailed
Inspection, curtailed: Sampling inspection in which inspection of the sample is stopped as soon as a decision is certain. Thus, as soon as the rejection number for defectives is reached, the decision is certain and no further inspection is necessary. In single sampling, however, the whole sample is usually inspected in order to have an unbiased record of quality history. This same practice is usually followed for the first sample in double or multiple sampling.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Inspection, measuring and test equipment
Measuring systems for quality inspections
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Inspection, normal
Inspection, normal: Inspection used in accordance with a sampling plan under ordinary circumstances.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Inspection, reduced
Inspection, reduced: Inspection in accordance with a sampling plan requiring smaller sample sizes than those used in normal inspection. Reduced inspection is used in some inspection systems as an economy measure when the level of submitted quality is sufficiently good and other stated conditions apply. Note: The criteria for determining when quality is “sufficiently good” must be defined in objective terms for any given inspection system.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Inspection, tightened
Inspection, tightened: Inspection in accordance with a sampling plan that has stricter acceptance criteria than those used in normal inspection. Tightened inspection is used in some inspection systems as a protective measure when the level of submitted quality is sufficiently poor. The higher rate of rejections is expected to lead suppliers to improve the quality of submitted product. Note: The criteria for determining when quality is “sufficiently poor” must be defined in objective terms for any given inspection system.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Inspections
Evaluations, checks, or examinations performed on products, processes, or systems to ensure compliance or quality standards.
Đăng bởi: Quality Control

Instant pudding
Instant pudding: A term used to illustrate an obstacle to achieving quality, or the supposition that quality and productivity improvement are achieved quickly through an affirmation of faith rather than through sufficient effort and education.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Institutionalization
The process of establishing or embedding practices, processes, or behaviors as a standard or norm within an organization or system.
Đăng bởi: Organizational Development

Integer Distribution
A probability distribution representing discrete integer values in a range, often used in various statistical analyses.
Đăng bởi: Probability Distribution

Integrated management system
Consolidation of fragmentary or discipline specific management systems (such as quality, environmental or occupational health and safety management systems) into an integrated management system. (On the basis of ISO 19011:2018)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Inter American Accreditation Cooperation (IAAC)
Inter American Accreditation Cooperation (IAAC): A cooperative organization of accreditation bodies.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Interacting processes
Processes that influence one another. ISO 9000:2015 calls the process approach the use of a system of processes in combination with identifying, understanding and managing interrelated processes.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Interaction
The interdependency or relationship between factors, variables, or elements affecting outcomes or results, often studied in experiments.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Relationship

Interaction plot
An interaction plot is a graphical tool that is used when there is a change in more than one factor in a statistical experiment design in order to analyze if these factors influence one another and if there are interrelations. Like the Main effect plot, the Interaction plot is used in the Improve phase in the Six Sigma DMAIC cycle.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Interest groups
See Interested party.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Interested party
Group or person who has an interest in an organization‘s performance or success. A group can comprise an organization, a part of an organization, or several organizations. As examples for an interested party, the standard lists: customers, owners, people in an organization, suppliers, bankers, unions, partners or society. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Intermediate customers
Intermediate customers: Organizations or individuals who operate as distributors, brokers or dealers between the supplier and the consumer or end user.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Internal Consistency
The degree of reliability or consistency within measurements, tests, or assessments conducted internally within a system.
Đăng bởi: Reliability Assessment

Internal customer
Internal customer: The recipient (person or department) within an organization of another person’s or department’s output (product, service or information). Also see “external customer.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Internal customer supplier relationship
An internal customer supplier relationship exists when departments or areas that receive a performance from other areas within an organization are seen as internal customers. This makes employees both customers and internal service providers or suppliers.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Internal failure
Internal failure: A product failure that occurs before the product is passed downstream—for example, delivered to external customers.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Internal quality audit
See First party audit.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Internal reports
Compilation of product related records that are necessary or helpful for planning, management and inspections.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Internal setup
Internal setup: Setup procedures that must be performed while a machine or piece of equipment is stopped; also known as inner exchange of die. Also see “external setup.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Internal Work
Work, tasks, or processes performed within an organization or system, often referring to internal operations or functions.
Đăng bởi: Organizational Processes

International Accreditation Registry (IAR)
International Accreditation Registry (IAR): A not for profit organization that accredits training and certification program results to international standards and guidelines.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

International Aerospace Quality Group (IAQG)
International Aerospace Quality Group (IAQG): An international nonprofit aerospace and defense industry legal entity (registered in Brussels) to continuously improve the industry’s processes used by its supply chain to consistently deliver high quality products or services and to make significant improvements in quality performance and reductions in cost.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

International Automotive Task Force (IATF)
International Automotive Task Force (IATF): An ad hoc group of automotive manufacturers (for example, General Motors, Ford, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, BMW, Volkswagen and Renault) and their respective trade associations (for example, Automotive Industry Action Group, the German Association of the Automotive Industry and the Society of Motor Manufacturers & Traders) formed to provide improved quality products to automotive customers worldwide.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC)
International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC): A cooperative organization of laboratory accreditation bodies.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
International Organization for Standardization (ISO): An independent, nongovernmental international organization with a membership of 161 national standards bodies that unites experts to share knowledge and develop voluntary, consensus based, market relevant international standards, guidelines and other types of documents.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

International Telecommunication Union
Internationale Fernmeldeunion (International Telecommunication Union or Union internationale des télécommunications, UIT) with headquarters in Geneva. Agency of the United Nations that deals with the technical aspects of telecommunication. This group defines international and globally effective standards. www.itu.int
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Interrelationship diagram
Interrelationship diagram: A management tool that depicts the relationship among factors in a complex situation; also called “interrelationship diagram” or “relations diagram.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Interrelationship digraph
The interrelationship digraph is a management tool (M7) that is used to illustrate interrelationships. The relationships among the causes of a central problem are shown by means of arrows. The causes are also classified according to their significance. The result is a representation of a problem‘s main causes as well as the relationships between them. It is then easy to derive possible solutions.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Interval Plot
A graphical representation illustrating intervals or ranges of values within a dataset, providing insights into variability.
Đăng bởi: Data Visualization

Intervention
Intervention: The action of a team facilitator when interrupting a discussion to state observations about group dynamics or the team process.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Introductory talk or introductory meeting
The introductory talk is held at the beginning of an audit (opening). The contents are: Introduction of the auditors; Explanation of the audit objectives; Overview of methods and procedures in auditing; Agreement on the time sequence; Clarification of the resources; Confidentiality; Reporting.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Inventory
Inventory: A term for assets (for example, materials, supplies, work in process and finished goods) held by an organization.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Inventory Turns
Measure indicating how quickly materials move through a facility or value stream.
Đăng bởi: Performance Measurement

Inverse Cumulative Probability
The reverse operation of cumulative probability, determining the value below which a specific probability lies in a distribution.
Đăng bởi: Probability Calculation

Investigation
Impartial examination to prevent recurrence post accident or incident.
Đăng bởi: Evaluation/Investigation

Involvement of people
The involvement of people is one of the eight quality management principles (see Quality management principles).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

IO Font
Input/Output Font: A specific typeface or font used in computer programming or data representation for input/output operations.
Đăng bởi: Computer Programming

IPC
Integrated Process Control.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

IPM Process
Integrated Project Management: A comprehensive approach or methodology managing projects through integration and coordination.
Đăng bởi: Project Management Methodology

IPO
See Innovative process chain optimization
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

IQM
Integrated Quality Management.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

IQNet
The International Certification Network, Bern (Switzerland). International network of 36 certification companies around the world, active since 1990.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Isa (Independent Safety Assessor)
Individual assessing safety independently.
Đăng bởi: Safety Assessment and Assurance

Ishikawa
The Japanese Kaoru Ishikawa (1915 1989) is one of the pioneers and important individuals in quality science. His core activities were “company wide quality control“, the “quality circle“ and particularly the cause and effect diagram that bears his name.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Ishikawa diagram
Ishikawa diagram: See “cause and effect diagram.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

ISO
International Organization for Standardization, Geneva. International organization of standardization organizations. www.iso.org
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

ISO 14000
ISO 14000: A series of international, voluntary environmental management standards, guides and technical reports developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

ISO 14001
ISO 14001: A voluntary environmental management standard developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

ISO 19011
ISO 19011: A guideline for the auditing of management system standards developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

ISO 26000
ISO 26000: An international standard developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to help organizations effectively assess and address those social responsibilities that are relevant and significant to their mission and vision; operations and processes; customers, employees, communities and other stakeholders; and environmental impact.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

ISO 9000
A set of international standards addressing quality management and assurance systems within organizations (e.g., ISO 9001).
Đăng bởi: Quality Management System

ISO 9000 series standards
ISO 9000 series standards: A set of international standards on quality management and quality assurance developed to help organizations effectively document the quality system elements to be implemented to maintain an efficient quality system. The standards, initially published in 1987, are not specific to any particular industry, product or service. The standards were developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) (see listing). The standards underwent major revision in 2000 and now include ISO 9000:2005 (definitions), ISO 9001:2008 (requirements), ISO 9004:2009 (continuous improvement) and ISO 9001: 2015 (risk management).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

ISO 9001
ISO 9001: A voluntary quality management system standard developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). First released in 1987 and one of several documents in the ISO 9000 family.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

ISO Method
A method conforming to standards established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) for specific procedures or processes.
Đăng bởi: Standardized Process

ISO/TC 176
Technical Committee 176 on Quality Management and Quality Assurance. Responsible for the development of the ISO 9000 family of standards.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Iterative Development
A software development approach involving repetitive cycles or iterations, revising and refining the product through successive stages.
Đăng bởi: Software Development Methodology

ITU
See International Telecommunication Union.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

J

JAMA
Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association Inc. – Association of Japanese automakers. IATF 16949:2016 was supported by the IATF and JAMA and worked out by representatives of the ISO/TC 176.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Japanese Institute of Plant Maintenance (JIPM)
An institute promoting and supporting plant maintenance practices and methodologies, particularly in Japan.
Đăng bởi: Maintenance Management

Jasuto In
Just in time, JIT, supply of only what is needed to only where it is
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Jidohka
Jidohka: Stopping a line automatically when a defective part is detected. Any necessary improvements can then be made by directing attention to the stopped equipment and the worker who stopped the operation. The jidohka system puts faith in the worker as a thinker and allows all workers the right to stop the line on which they are working. Also see “autonomation.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Jidoka
Self controlled nonconformity detection system. Jidoka (Japanese origin) functions as a tool to localize and report problems that arise. Machines automatically detect incorrect functions at production points and stop the further production. This prevents further processing of nonconforming parts.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Jidou Ka
JIDOKA (pronounced gee dough kah), autonomation
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Jigsr (Joint Inter Institutional Group On Safety And Risk)
Group focusing on safety and risk management.
Đăng bởi: Safety and Risk Management Group

Jikkou Takuto
Actual takt time, provisional takt time (see takt time), takt time that
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

JIS
See Just in sequence.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Jishuhozen / Autonomous Maintenance
A concept in Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) focusing on operators' involvement in maintaining and improving equipment reliability.
Đăng bởi: Maintenance Methodology

JISQ 9100
JISQ 9100: An international quality management standard for the aerospace industry. Also see AS9100.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

JIT
See Just in time.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Jitter
Variability or fluctuations in timing, often referring to irregularities in signals, data transmission, or system performance.
Đăng bởi: Signal Processing

Job instruction
Job instruction: Quality system documentation that describes work conducted in one function in an organization, such as setup, inspection, rework or operator.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Job Sequence
The order or arrangement of tasks or operations in a particular sequence within a workflow or production process.
Đăng bởi: Task Organization

Joint audit
Audit by two or more collaborating auditing organizations at a single auditee. (On the basis of ISO 19011:2018)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Joint venture
Cooperation among parties that leads to the establishment of a new, legally independent entity. All founding companies participate with their capital. The founding companies also frequently introduce a large portion of resources in technology, property rights, technical and marketing know how and/or industrial installations into the new company.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

JSA
Japanese Standards Association, Tokyo, Japan. www.jsa.or.jp
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

JSQC
Japanese Society of Quality Control, Tokyo, Japan. www.jsqc.org
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Judgment
Verification and subsequent summary of facts
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Judgment inspection
Judgment inspection: A form of inspection to determine nonconforming product. Also see "informative inspection."
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Judgment Sampling
A sampling method based on the judgment or expertise of the sampler, selecting specific samples deemed representative or relevant.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Sampling

Jun Biki
Sequential parts withdrawal, sequenced part supply
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Junjo Hyou
Production sequence sheet
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Juran
The Romanian American industrial engineer Joseph M. Juran (1904 – 2008) is one of the pioneers and important figures in quality science. His core activity was the “Quality Trilogy.“ The process of systematic and continual quality improvement resulted in three recurring steps, namely, quality planning, quality control and quality improvement (quality trilogy).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Juran trilogy
Juran trilogy: Three managerial processes identified by Joseph M. Juran for use in managing for quality: quality planning, quality control and quality improvement.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

JUSE
Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers, Tokyo, Japan. www.juse.or.jp
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Just in sequence
Concept from procurement logistics with the objective of delivering the right quantity of the right products in the right order (in sequence). Further development of the just in time principle in order to provide the delivered product or material synchronously with the production order.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Just in time
Organization principle and procurement strategy with the objective of waste free realization of overlapping processes tailored to the specific needs. The right products should be procured at the right time and in the right quantity and provided for further processing. If this parts flows is practiced everywhere, the warehouse stock can approach zero. Today this principle is being further developed through just in sequence.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Just In Time (Jit)
Production strategy to produce only what is needed, when needed.
Đăng bởi: Lean Manufacturing

Just In Time (JIT) Manufacturing
A manufacturing approach focusing on producing goods or components as needed, reducing waste and inventory costs.
Đăng bởi: Lean Manufacturing Methodology

Just in time (JIT) training
Just in time (JIT) training: The provision of training only when it is needed to all but eliminate the loss of knowledge and skill caused by a lag between training and use.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

K

K 7
See Creativity techniques.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Kadouritsu
Operational availability (standard reading is: BEKIDOURITSU, not KADOURITSU), equal to the time a machine is on divided by the time it is engaged in value adding work
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Kaizen
Kaizen: A Japanese term that means gradual, unending improvement by doing little things better and setting and achieving increasingly higher standards. Masaaki Imai made the term famous in his book, Kaizen: The Key to Japan’s Competitive Success.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Kaizen™ Culture
Workplace environment promoting continuous improvement.
Đăng bởi: Organizational Culture

Kaizen Leader
A person leading or facilitating continuous improvement initiatives or activities within an organization, driving Kaizen principles.
Đăng bởi: Improvement Facilitator

Kaizen™ Suggestion System
System encouraging employees to submit improvement ideas.
Đăng bởi: Continuous Improvement

Kaizen Workshop
Group activity focused on identifying and implementing process improvements within a limited timeframe.
Đăng bởi: Continuous Improvement

Kamishibai
Visual control method using cards to check process adherence.
Đăng bởi: Lean Manufacturing

Kanban
Kanban: A method for providing material/product to a succeeding operation by signaling the preceding operation when more material/product is needed. This “pull” type of process control employs a kanban, a card or signboard, attached to a lot of material/product in a production line signifying the delivery of a given quantity. When all of the material/product has been processed, the card/sign is returned to its source, where it becomes an order to replenish.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Kanban Board
A visual management tool displaying tasks or work items, their status, and progress in a workflow or process.
Đăng bởi: Project Management Tool

Kanban Saikuru
KANBAN cycle, delivery cycle, KANBAN coefficient, frequency of deliveries after a KANBAN card is issued
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Kano model
Kano model: Three classes of customer requirements, as described by Noriaki Kano: satisfiers—what customers say they want; dissatisfiers—what customers expect and what results in dissatisfaction when not present; and delighters/exciters—new or unexpected features that customers do not expect.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Kappa
A statistical measure assessing the agreement between two raters or observers when evaluating categorical data.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Kata
Routine and habits for continuous improvement.
Đăng bởi: Continuous Improvement

KBA
Kraftfahrt Bundesamt, Flensburg. www.kba.de
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance
A measure of agreement among multiple raters or judges when assessing the rank order of items or subjects.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Analysis

Kendall's Tau B
A statistical measure determining the strength and direction of association between two ordinal variables.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Key account
A primary customer.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Key Account Management
Arose as a sub area of customer marketing in the 1960s and identifies the systematic cultivation of the relationships to important customers (key accounts). Because it is often the case that a few customers make up the largest share of the revenue, it is worthwhile for companies to give special attention to their key accounts. Usually a fixed contact person is established (key account manager) who is particularly responsible for ensuring that the important customer itself is successful in its market. Key account management does not mean the sale of products to large customers. Instead, the following is called for: Supplying solutions; helping with process optimization; contributing in the development of new products and services; and contributing to the joint development of new business fields or in strategy and future planning. This is because a customer‘s importance is not necessarily in the revenue; it can also be in access to new markets (regions, groups of customers) mediated by a customer or in the development of new technologies and products enabled or facilitated by this customer. Key Account Management is particularly encountered in the consumer goods and investment goods industry.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Key performance indicator (KPI)
Key performance indicator (KPI): A statistical measure of how well an organization is doing in a particular area. A KPI could measure an organization’s financial performance or how it is holding up against customer requirements.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Key Performance Indicators (K.P.I.)
Metrics or indicators used to evaluate and measure the performance or success of an organization, process, or activity.
Đăng bởi: Performance Measurement

Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)
Metrics or indicators used to evaluate and measure the performance or success of an organization, process, or activity.
Đăng bởi: Performance Measurement

Key process
Key process: A major system level process that supports the mission and satisfies major consumer requirements.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Key process characteristic
Key process characteristic: A process parameter that can affect safety or compliance with regulations, fit, function, performance or subsequent processing of product.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Key product characteristic
Key product characteristic: A product characteristic that can affect safety or compliance with regulations, fit, function, performance or subsequent processing of product.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Key results area
Key results area: Customer requirements that are critical for the organization’s success.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Kitting
Kitting: A process in which assemblers are supplied with kits—a box of parts, fittings and tools—for each task they perform. This eliminates time consuming trips from one parts bin, tool crib or supply center to another to get necessary materials.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Knowledge management
The manner in which an organization pursues the targeted handling of theoretical and practical knowledge. As a rule, knowledge management checks which knowledge is needed in which scope for which function and then provides this knowledge in a suitable form. Knowledge can be broken down into explicit knowledge (can be expressed and passed on formally in language, words, images, etc.) and tacit knowledge (arises primarily in personal experience and is hard to put into words). Tasks comprise the definition of knowledge objectives, the organization of knowledge acquisition, promotion of the exchange of knowledge, seeing to knowledge preservation, and controlling the use of knowledge. In the newer management theory, knowledge management is increasingly seen as the promotion of the organization‘s ability to learn and in contrast, strictly hierarchical ordering and transmission of knowledge are criticized. The objective is an organization that is intelligent, that generates knowledge, and that is able to make decisions. Knowledge management is consequently less about pre structuring knowledge and more about creating an organizational culture that encourages learning in the form of creating and implementing knowledge.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Knowledge, Skills, Experience Behaviours
Core factors comprising knowledge, skills, experience, and behaviors.
Đăng bởi: Competency Classification

Kobetsu Kaizen™
Focused or specific improvement activities within a process.
Đăng bởi: Continuous Improvement

Kobetsu Kaizen / Focused Improvement
A targeted or specific improvement approach in Lean manufacturing, focusing on particular areas or aspects for enhancement.
Đăng bởi: Lean Improvement Methodology

Konsai Umpan
Mixed load conveyance
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

KonTraG
Gesetz zur Kontrolle und Transparenz im Unternehmensbereich [German Corporate Sector Supervision and Transparency Act]. KonTraG went into effect on May 1, 1998 and has the objective of improving corporate governance (methods and instruments for managing and monitoring organizations) in German companies.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Koutei Betsu Nouryoku Hyou
Standardized production capacity sheet
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Koutei Nai Kanban
Intra process KANBAN
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Koutei No Nagare Ka
Continous flow processing
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Kouten Kan Hikitori Kanban
Inter process KANBAN
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

KPI
Key Performance Index or also Key Performance Indicator. Performance figure for determining and measuring the extent to which important objectives or critical success factors have been met.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

KPQM
Knowledge Process Quality Model: Model for assessing the maturity level of knowledge processes. It describes the development of the process maturity in six levels (level 0 – 5 from initial to continual improvement). Each is examined on the basis of four development paths (process organization; employee deployment and knowledge networks; acceptance and motivation; computer based support). The assessment results can be used to derive prioritized actions for knowledge management.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Kruskal Wallis test
Kruskal Wallis test: A nonparametric test to compare three or more samples. It tests the null hypothesis that all populations have identical distribution functions against the alternative hypothesis that at least one of the samples differs only with respect to location (median), if at all. It is the analogue to the F test used in analysis of variance. While analysis of variance tests depend on the assumption that all populations under comparison are normally distributed, the Kruskal Wallis test places no such restriction on the comparison. It is a logical extension of the Wilcoxon Mann Whitney Test (see listing).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

KTQ
Kooperation für Transparenz und Qualität im Gesundheitswesen [cooperation for transparency and quality in the health sector] (quality standard as an industry solution for hospitals, rehabilitation centers, nursing facilities, alternative dwelling forms and doctor‘s practices). The KTQ group was established as a combination of associations at the federal level in Germany in the mid 1990s with the objective of continual quality improvement in hospitals. The KTQ model is a practice oriented method to evaluate quality and safety. It is furthermore an objective to increase transparency in the performance quality and medical performance and also to implement new quality elements. Today KTQ GmbH is an important supplier of systems to demonstrate quality management for facilities in the health sector in Germany. KTQ is also a registered trademark. Certification in accordance with the KTQ procedure is also possible. www.ktq.de
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Kurtosis
A statistical measure quantifying the degree of peakedness or flatness in the distribution of a dataset's values.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Kyu Shi Koutei Hyou
QC process chart
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

L

Label
A descriptive tag or identifier attached to data points, elements, or categories for identification or classification.
Đăng bởi: Data Identification

Label Position
The specific location or placement of labels within a graphical representation or display, aiding in data interpretation.
Đăng bởi: Data Visualization

Labor as a Percentage Cost
The percentage of total expenses attributed to labor costs within a business or production process.
Đăng bởi: Cost Analysis

Laboratory
Facility for performing inspections, tests and calibrations. These can be chemical, metallurgical, geometric, physical, electrical or reliability tests. (On the basis of IATF 16949:2016)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Laboratory scope
Laboratory scope: A record containing the specific tests, evaluations and calibrations a laboratory has the ability and competency to perform, the list of equipment it uses, and a list of the methods and standards to which it adheres to each of these.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Laboratory/lab
Laboratory/lab: A facility that can perform calibration services, test validation and testing (for example, chemical, metallurgical, dimensional, physical, electrical and reliability testing).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Lack of Fit
A statistical term describing the discrepancy or inadequacy of a model in explaining observed variation in data.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Analysis

Lag
A time delay or interval between cause and effect or the occurrence of events in a process or system.
Đăng bởi: Time Analysis

Laplace Distribution
A probability distribution describing continuous random variables with symmetric tails around a central location.
Đăng bởi: Probability Distribution

Last off part comparison
Last off part comparison: A comparison of the last part off a production run with a part off the next production run to verify that the quality level is equivalent.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Layout inspection
Layout inspection: The complete measurement of all dimensions shown on a design record.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

LCC
See Life cycle costs.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

LCL
Lower Control Limit: The lower boundary or limit in a control chart indicating the minimum acceptable level of performance.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Control Measure

Lead Exposure
Exposure to lead causing health issues.
Đăng bởi: Health Hazard

Lead Time
The time taken for an item or product to move through a process from initiation to completion or delivery.
Đăng bởi: Process Efficiency

Leadership
Leadership: The action of leading a group of people or an organization, an essential part of a quality improvement effort.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Lean
Lean: A systematic method for waste elimination or minimization (muda) within a manufacturing system without sacrificing productivity.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Lean enterprise
Lean enterprise: An organization that has eliminated or minimized waste (muda).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Lean management
Delayering of the hierarchy and improved customer supplier relationships by streamlining the company and avoiding wasting resources.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Lean Manufacturing
A production method emphasizing waste reduction, efficiency, and continuous improvement in manufacturing processes.
Đăng bởi: Production Management Methodology

Lean manufacturing/production
Lean manufacturing/production: An initiative focused on eliminating all waste in manufacturing processes. Principles of lean manufacturing include zero waiting time, zero inventory, scheduling (internal customer pull instead of push system), batch to flow (cut batch sizes), line balancing and cutting actual process times. The production systems are characterized by optimum automation, just in time supplier delivery disciplines, quick changeover times, high levels of quality and continuous improvement.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Lean migration
Lean migration: The journey from traditional manufacturing methods to one in which all forms of waste are systematically eliminated.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Lean Quality Management
See Lean Management.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Lean Six Sigma
A combination of Lean and Six Sigma methodologies, aiming to reduce waste and variation while improving processes.
Đăng bởi: Process Improvement Framework

Least Squares
A statistical method minimizing the sum of squared differences between observed and predicted values in regression analysis.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Analysis

Legend
A key or explanatory guide in a graph or chart providing information about symbols, colors, or elements used.
Đăng bởi: Data Visualization

Legionella
Bacterium causing Legionellosis, notably Legionnaires’ disease.
Đăng bởi: Hazardous Biological Agent

Legislation
Collective UK Acts of Parliament forming law.
Đăng bởi: Legal Framework

Length of Observation
The duration or period for which observations, data collection, or studies are conducted to gather information or insights.
Đăng bởi: Data Collection

Letter Values Glossary
A compilation or explanation of letter values used in statistical analysis or models for representation or interpretation.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Reference

Level loading
Level loading: A technique for balancing production throughput over time. Life cycle stages: Design, manufacturing, assembly, installation, operation and shutdown periods of product development
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Leverages
Statistical measures assessing the impact or influence of individual data points on the overall regression model.
Đăng bởi: Regression Analysis

Leverages PLS
Measures in Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression assessing the influence or impact of variables on the model's structure.
Đăng bởi: Regression Analysis

Lfs (Labour Force Survey)
Survey providing labor related statistics.
Đăng bởi: Workforce Related Statistics

Liability for fault
Damage can be directly assigned to the party that caused it. Obligation to damage compensation on the basis of statutory provisions that require culpable behavior in the form of wrongful intent or negligence.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Licensed Specialist
Authorized person to work with asbestos.
Đăng bởi: Qualification/License

Life cycle costs
Combination of investment and cost accounting that reverts to the concept of the life cycle. Here, the cost influencing factors are taken into account that often are not included in the cost accounting. A product‘s costs are analyzed across all of its life phases (from the development through to disposal). This results in recommendations for the product design and the procurement, with the objective of optimizing the total costs.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Lifo
LIFO (Last In, First Out) is an inventory management method where the last items purchased or produced are used or sold first.
Đăng bởi: Inventory Control

Likelihood
Estimate of risk probability within a specified time period.
Đăng bởi: Probability Measurement

Likelihood Ratio Test
A statistical test comparing the likelihood of observed data under different models, assessing their goodness of fit.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Test

Limiting amount
Value for the lower limiting value and upper limiting value, which only differ by the sign. (On the basis of DIN 55350 12:1989)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Limiting amount of deviation
Amount of the lower limiting deviation or of the upper limiting deviation regardless of whether the amounts are equal or not.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Limiting deviation
Lower limiting deviation or also upper limiting deviation. (On the basis of DIN 55350 12)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Limiting quality
Quality level at which the lot inspected has a low probability of acceptance. Also referred to as LQ. (On the basis of ISO 3534 2: 2013)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Limiting sample
Object that physically represents the limiting value of a quality characteristic. (On the basis of DIN 55350 15)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Limiting value
Lower or upper limiting value. (On the basis of DIN 55350 15)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

LIMS
Laboratory Information Management System. A category of software systems that deals with data processing in chemistry, physics, biology or medical laboratories.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Line Balancing
A technique optimizing work distribution among multiple workstations to reduce idle time and improve production efficiency.
Đăng bởi: Production Optimization

Line Of Defence
Systematic approach delineating roles and responsibilities for effective risk management.
Đăng bởi: Risk Management Structure

Line Plot
A graphical representation displaying data points as dots connected by lines, highlighting trends or patterns in the data.
Đăng bởi: Data Visualization

Linear Constraints
Constraints or limitations in a mathematical or optimization model represented as linear equations or inequalities.
Đăng bởi: Mathematical Modeling

Linear Relationship
A mathematical or statistical relationship between variables that exhibits a constant rate of change or proportionality.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Analysis

Linearity
The property of a relationship or model where changes in one variable cause proportional changes in another variable.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Link Function
A mathematical function connecting the mean of a distribution to a linear predictor in statistical modeling.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Modeling

Linkage Methods
Techniques or methodologies used in data analysis or clustering to link or group similar elements or data points together.
Đăng bởi: Data Analysis

LIRD
Last Inspection Record Date: The date marking the last recorded inspection or evaluation of a particular item or asset.
Đăng bởi: Inspection Record Keeping

Listening post
Listening post: An individual who, by virtue of his or her potential for having contact with customers, is designated to collect, document and transmit pertinent feedback to a central collection authority in the organization.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

LiveLink
A software or technology facilitating real time collaboration or sharing of documents, data, or information among users.
Đăng bởi: Collaboration Tool

Ljung Box Q Statistic
A statistical test assessing whether residuals from a time series model exhibit significant autocorrelation at various lags.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Test

Lngamma
A mathematical function representing the logarithm of the gamma function, commonly used in probability and statistics.
Đăng bởi: Mathematical Function

Load load
Load load: A method of conducting single piece flow in which the operator proceeds from machine to machine, taking the part from one machine and loading it into the next. The lines allow different parts of a production process to be completed by one operator, eliminating the need to move around large batches of work in progress inventory.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Lock Off
System to physically lock controls in the 'OFF' position for safety.
Đăng bởi: Safety Control Mechanisms

Lockout/Tagout
Safety procedure for preventing equipment reactivation during repairs.
Đăng bởi: Safety Procedure

Log Likelihood
A statistical measure quantifying the likelihood of observed data given a specific model or distribution.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Log Residuals
Residuals or differences between observed and predicted values in logarithmic space in statistical analysis or modeling.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Analysis

Log t
A mathematical function representing the logarithm of the Student's t distribution probability density function.
Đăng bởi: Probability Function

Logarithm
A mathematical function determining the power to which a fixed number (base) must be raised to obtain a given value.
Đăng bởi: Mathematical Function

Loge
Natural Logarithm: A logarithm using the base 'e' (approximately 2.718) often used in mathematical and statistical calculations.
Đăng bởi: Mathematical Function

Logical Analysis
An analytical method or approach based on reasoning, rational thinking, or deduction to derive conclusions or solve problems.
Đăng bởi: Analytical Method

Logistic Distribution
A probability distribution describing continuous random variables between a specified range, often resembling an S shaped curve.
Đăng bởi: Probability Distribution

Logistic Regression
A statistical technique used to model the relationship between a binary dependent variable and one or more independent variables.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Modeling

Logistic Regression Response Variables
Variables in logistic regression models representing outcomes or dependent variables in binary or categorical form.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Modeling

Logistics quality
Ability to deliver and delivery reliability: The customer receives the right products in the right quantity at the right place and right time.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Loglogistic Distribution
A probability distribution model with two shape parameters, often used in survival analysis or modeling extreme events.
Đăng bởi: Probability Distribution

Lognormal Distribution
A probability distribution characterized by its logarithm being normally distributed, frequently used in financial modeling and natural phenomena.
Đăng bởi: Probability Distribution

Loler (Lifting Operations And Lifting Equipment Regulations)
Regulations governing lifting equipment safety.
Đăng bởi: Lifting Equipment Safety Standards

Lone Working
Working unaccompanied or without immediate access to assistance.
Đăng bởi: Condition/Procedure

Lorenz curve
Graphical representation of statistical distributions and illustration of the extent of inequality. It was developed by Max Otto Lorenz.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Loss
Personal injury and/or asset damage.
Đăng bởi: Injury and Asset Damage

Lost customer analysis
Lost customer analysis: Analysis conducted to determine why a customer or a class of customers was lost.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Lot
Lot: 1) A defined quantity of product accumulated under conditions considered uniform for sampling purposes. 2) Items constituting a defined quantity of uniform product for purposes of proceeding collectively through a process.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Lot quality
Lot quality: The value of percentage defective or of defects per hundred units in a lot.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Lot size (also referred to as N)
Lot size (also referred to as N): The number of units in a lot.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Lot tolerance percentage defective (LTPD)
Lot tolerance percentage defective (LTPD): Expressed in percentage defective, the poorest quality in an individual lot that should be accepted. Note: LTPD is used as a basis for some inspection systems and is commonly associated with a small consumer risk.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Lot, batch
Lot, batch: A definite quantity of some product manufactured under conditions of production that are considered uniform.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

LOV chart
Flow chart with assignment to the organizational unit. The direct interface to the process customer (line of visibility) is distinctly visible. The LOV chart also shows which organizational unit deals with which process step.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Lower Control Limit
The lower boundary or limit in a control chart, representing the minimum acceptable level of performance or quality.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Control Measure

Lower control limit (LCL)
Lower control limit (LCL): Control limit for points below the central line in a control chart.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Lower Exposure Action Value
Lower noise exposure level requiring specific risk reduction actions.
Đăng bởi: Noise Exposure Threshold

Lower limiting deviation
Lower limiting value minus the reference value. (On the basis of DIN 55350 12)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Lower Specification Limit
The lower acceptable threshold for a product or process specified by customer requirements or standards.
Đăng bởi: Quality Control

LOWESS
Locally Weighted Scatterplot Smoothing: A method for creating a smooth curve or trendline through scatterplot data.
Đăng bởi: Data Smoothing

LQ
Limiting Quality. See Non acceptable quality level.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

LQL
Limiting Quality Level.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Ludwig Erhard Preis
The Ludwig Erhard Prize is a German quality prize for outstanding achievements in competition which is awarded annually by the Ludwig Erhard Preis – Auszeichnung fà ¼r Spitzenleistungen im Wettbewerb e.V. (ILEP) initiative. It was presented for the first time in 1997. The rating system‘s structure is similar to that of the European Quality Award. The Ludwig Erhard Prize fills the gap between individual national prizes in Germany and the EEA. This award bears the name of the German minister of economic affairs and later federal chancellor Ludwig Erhard (1897 – 1977), the “Vater des Wirtschaftswunders“, or leader of Germany‘s postwar economic recovery.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Lurking Variable
A variable influencing the relationship between other variables in a study but not directly observed or measured.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Analysis

M

M Failure Test
A statistical test used to evaluate the reliability or failure rate of a product or system under specific conditions.
Đăng bởi: Reliability Analysis

M7
See Management tools.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Machine capability
Suitability of the machine. Machine capability indices that are determined by the machine capability analysis are the CM and CMK value. They represent an estimate of the dispersion of the interesting, quantitative characteristics. When calculating these indices, only the machine‘s own influences are taken into consideration.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Machine capability analysis
See Machine capability.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Machine Cycle Time
The time required to complete a full cycle or operation in a machine, often used in manufacturing process analysis.
Đăng bởi: Process Efficiency

Machine Downtime
The period during which a machine or equipment is not operational, typically due to maintenance, breakdowns, or issues.
Đăng bởi: Production Interruption

Machine Guarding
Safety feature shielding dangerous machine parts.
Đăng bởi: Equipment

Machine Set Up Time
The duration needed to prepare a machine or equipment for a specific operation or production run.
Đăng bởi: Manufacturing Preparation

Magic triangle
Relationship between quality, costs and time. The objective must be to balance all three competing parameters.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Mahalanobis
A statistical measure used to assess the distance between a data point and the mean in multivariate analysis, considering correlations.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Main effect plot
Graphics tool to indentify a variable‘s influence on the output variable. Main effect plots are primarily used in the DoE (Design of Experiments) in order to examine how significant a variable‘s influence is on the output quantity being examined.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Main Effects Plot
A graphical representation illustrating the main effects of different factors or variables on a response in experimental design.
Đăng bởi: Experimental Analysis

Main process
Higher level process in a process hierarchy. Each main process constitutes an organizational unit and in turn is divided into various sub processes.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Maintainability
Maintainability: The probability that a given maintenance action for an item under given usage conditions can be performed within a stated time interval when the maintenance is performed under stated conditions using stated procedures and resources. Maintainability has two categories: serviceability (the ease of conducting scheduled inspections and servicing) and repairability (the ease of restoring service after a failure).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Maintenance
1. Servicing, care, inspection and repair of technical instruments in a system in order to preserve the functional capability.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Maintenance Performance Sheet (Mp Sheet)
A document or sheet tracking and evaluating the performance of maintenance activities, tasks, or schedules.
Đăng bởi: Maintenance Management

Make it Ugly
A concept suggesting deliberately creating flaws or issues in a process to identify weaknesses and areas for improvement.
Đăng bởi: Process Improvement Methodology

Make to Order
A manufacturing strategy where products are produced or customized based on specific customer orders or demands.
Đăng bởi: Manufacturing Strategy

Make to Stock
A manufacturing approach where products are produced in anticipation of demand, creating inventory available for immediate sale.
Đăng bởi: Production Strategy

Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award
Quality award in the USA. This award is based on a TQM model: A maximum of 1000 points can be earned in each of seven categories. The prize has been annually awarded to a company from production, one from the service sector and to an SME since 1988.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA)
Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA): An award established by the U.S. Congress in 1987 to raise awareness of quality management and recognize U. S. organizations that have implemented successful quality management systems. The award is managed by the U.S. Commerce Department National Institute of Standards and Technology and administered by CiCC.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Malfunction
Termination of a unit‘s capability to fulfill the required function. (IEC 60050)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Management
Coordinated activities to direct and control an organization. ISO 9000:2015 recommends using the term management only for one person or one group of people if the further context an additional conceptual definition makes it possible to avoid confusion with the term management as defined above. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Management by fact
An approach to decision making emphasizing the use of data, evidence, and facts rather than opinions or assumptions.
Đăng bởi: Decision Making Methodology

Management by objectives
Also called management by results.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Management by Policy
Management of the objectives and the means. This procedure is based on the Japanese principle of Hoshin Kanri. Hoshin means objective or direction and Kanri stands for management or controlling.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Management liability
The responsibility of an entrepreneur or planner for deficient organization of its internal procedures. ISO 9001 certification makes it easier to be released from claims based on management liability.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Management manual
See Quality manual.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Management process
Process that has the character of giving instructions and making decisions. Management processes are also called control processes. In particular, these include human resources planning, corporate planning and target agreement processes, as well as the performance of statutory entrepreneurial duties.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Management representative
See Quality management representative.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Management review
Management review: A top management meeting held at planned intervals to review the continuing suitability and effectiveness of one or more of an organization’s management system(s).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Management system
System to define policy and objectives and to achieve these objectives An organization‘s management system can include different systems, such as a quality management system, a financial management system and an environmental management system. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Management tools
The (seven) management tools are problem solving techniques that are used to analyze verbal information on the basis of visual methods. These tools are preferably used to process complex problems or when there is little or no numerical data available. In particular, these are: affinity diagram, interrelationship digraph, tree diagram, matrix diagram, matrix data analysis (portfolio analysis), problem decision program chart, and activity network diagram.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Manager
Manager: An individual with responsibility and authority over managing a process.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Mann Whitney Test
A non parametric statistical test comparing two independent groups to determine differences in their distributions or medians.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Test

Manova
Multivariate Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique examining differences among multiple groups for multiple dependent variables.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Analysis

Mantel Haenszel Cochran Test
A statistical test used to assess the association between two categorical variables while controlling for another variable.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Test

Manual Handling
Transporting or supporting a load manually.
Đăng bởi: Manual Labor Safety

Manual Time
The time taken or spent by individuals or workers to perform tasks or operations manually, excluding automated processes.
Đăng bởi: Time Measurement

Manufacturing Costs per Unit
The average cost incurred in producing a single unit of a product, considering all expenses related to manufacturing.
Đăng bởi: Cost Analysis

Manufacturing resource planning (MRP II)
Manufacturing resource planning (MRP II): When material requirements planning and capacity planning and finance interface to translate operational planning into financial terms and into a simulation tool to assess alternative production plans.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Mapping symbols or icons
Mapping symbols or icons: An easy, effective way to visually communicate the flow of materials and information.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Margin of Error
The range within which the true value of a parameter is likely to lie, accounting for uncertainty in statistical estimates.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Marginal costs
Costs caused by the production of an additional unit.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Marginal Plot
A graphical representation depicting the marginal relationship between variables, often used in exploratory data analysis.
Đăng bởi: Data Visualization

Masing
Walter Masing (1915 – 2004), Ph.D. in physics, is a pioneer and important figure in quality science. Particularly in Germany he made a name for himself as a pioneer of modern, industrial quality science.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Master Black Belt
Coach and expert in the Six Sigma organization: The Master Black Belt is responsible for setting up the Six Sigma organization and for advising the Champions on how Six Sigma can optimally be employed and used to implement the firm‘s objectives. The Master Black Belt is the most important expert for all methods and tools, and conveys this information across all of a company‘s levels.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Master Black Belt (MBB)
Master Black Belt (MBB): A problem solving subject matter expert responsible for strategic implementations in an organization. This person is typically qualified to teach other facilitators the statistical and problem solving methods, tools and applications to use in such implementations.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Material Flow
Movement of physical items through a value stream, aiming for tight process sequences.
Đăng bởi: Process Organization

Material handling
Material handling: Methods, equipment and systems for conveying materials to various machines and processing areas, and for transferring finished parts to assembly, packaging and shipping areas.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Material requirements planning (MRP)
Material requirements planning (MRP): A computerized system typically used to determine the quantity and timing requirements for production and delivery of items to customers and suppliers. Using MRP to schedule production at various processes will result in push production because any predetermined schedule is an estimate only of what the next process will actually need.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Material Safety Data Sheet
Essential document containing information for safe supply, handling, and use of hazardous substances.
Đăng bởi: Documentation/Assessment

Matrices
Plural of Matrix: Mathematical structures used for data organization or representation, often in linear algebra or statistical analysis.
Đăng bởi: Mathematical Structure

Matrix
Matrix: A document for displaying the relationships among various data sets.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Matrix data analysis
See Portfolio analysis.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Matrix diagram
The matrix diagram is a management tool (M7) for representing complex interrelationships. With the help of a matrix, the relationships and interactions of a problem or question are revealed step by step and shown in a clear manner. Up to four dimensions can be linked to one another (L, T and X matrix).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Matrix Plot
A graphical representation illustrating relationships among variables using a matrix format, aiding in data visualization.
Đăng bởi: Data Visualization

Maturity level
Certain stage of maturity or organizational maturity of a company in the implementation of a management system or of a continual improvement process.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Max
Maximum: The highest or largest value observed or attainable within a dataset or a given set of values.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Maximum average outgoing quality
Maximum average outgoing quality in a single sampling instruction.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

MBNQA
See Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

MbO
Management by Objectives.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

MbP
Management by Policy.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

MCA
See Machine Capability Analysis.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

MCC
Machine Capability Control. See Machine capability.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

MDT
Mean Down Time.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Me De Miru Kanri
Visual control, visual management, the visual factory
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Meal Break
Designated time for employees to take meals.
Đăng bởi: Downtime Factor

Mean
Mean: A measure of central tendency; the arithmetic average of all measurements in a data set.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Mean Cumulative Function
A statistical function representing the cumulative distribution function for a continuous random variable's mean.
Đăng bởi: Probability Function

Mean Duration Rate
Average days lost per accident.
Đăng bởi: Workplace Accident Duration Analysis

Mean Squares
A measure of variability or dispersion calculated as the sum of squared deviations from the mean divided by degrees of freedom.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Mean Taguchi
A concept in Taguchi methods focusing on optimizing processes to minimize variations around a target or desired mean.
Đăng bởi: Quality Improvement Methodology

Mean time between failures (MTBF)
Mean time between failures (MTBF): The average time interval between failures for a repairable machine, piece of equipment or product for a defined unit of measure; for example, operating hours, cycles and miles.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Mean value
See Arithmetic mean.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Mean, Standard Error of
The standard deviation of the sampling distribution of the sample mean, representing the uncertainty in estimating the population mean.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Means Of Escape
Structural route to safety in case of emergencies.
Đăng bởi: Emergency Escape Routes

Measurand
Physical quantity that is measured. (On the basis of DIN 1319 1)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Measure
A quantifiable or measurable characteristic, attribute, or variable used for assessment, evaluation, or analysis.
Đăng bởi: Data Analysis

Measure of dispersion
Index that registers deviations.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Measurement
Measurement: The act or process of determining a value. An approximation or estimate of the value of the specific quantity subject to measurement, which is complete only when accompanied by a quantitative statement of its uncertainty.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Measurement management system
Necessary system for attaining metrological confirmation (e.g., calibration) and for permanent monitoring of measurement processes. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Measurement process
Activities for determining a measured quantity. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Measurement result
Estimated value of a measured quantity that is acquired from measurements as an approximation of the true value of the measured quantity. (On the basis of DIN 1319 1)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Measurement standard
Material measure, reference material, measuring instrument or measuring system. It is used to reproduce, keep unchanged or represent a unit of measurement in order that it can be passed on to other measuring instruments by means of comparison. (On the basis of DIN 1319 1)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Measurement system
Measurement system: All operations, procedures, devices and other equipment, personnel and environment used to assign a value to the characteristic being measured.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Measurement System Analysis
An evaluation process assessing the accuracy, precision, and reliability of a measurement system or equipment.
Đăng bởi: Quality Assurance

Measurement System Analysis (MSA)
Analysis of the behavior of a measuring system under real usage conditions (various operation sites, different inspectors, real workpieces, and installation into different measuring devices). The results make it possible to state whether or not this inspection, measuring and test equipment and measurement systems are suitable for use in measurements with certain stipulated tolerances or process dispersion.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Measurement System Variation
Variability arising from the measurement process, influencing the consistency and reliability of measurements.
Đăng bởi: Quality Assessment

Measurement uncertainty
Measurement uncertainty: In metrology, a non negative parameter characterizing the dispersion of the values attributed to a measured quantity.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Measures of Accuracy
Statistical measures assessing the closeness or accuracy of observed values to the true or expected values in data analysis.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Evaluation

Measuring accuracy
Range in which an experimentally determined quantity can deviate from the actual value. It is a measure of the value‘s accuracy (also measurement uncertainty or error).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Measuring equipment
Measuring instrument, software, measurement standard, reference material, auxiliary apparatus or a combination of these required to carry out a measurement process. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Measuring instrument
Instrument for measuring a measured quantity. It can be used either alone or in combination with other equipment. (On the basis of DIN 1319 1)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Measuring object
Bearer of a measured quantity. These can be bodies, processes or states. (On the basis of DIN 1319 1)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Measuring system
All measuring instruments and associated additional equipment (e.g., thermostat) in order to achieve a measurement result. (On the basis of DIN 1319 1)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Median
The middle value in a dataset when arranged in ascending or descending order, separating the higher and lower halves.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Median Polish
A statistical method for analyzing two way or multi way tables to estimate row and column effects iteratively.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Analysis

Medical Surveillance Program
Monitoring employees after exposure to occupational hazards.
Đăng bởi: Health Hazard

Meeting
Time allocated for work related meetings.
Đăng bởi: Downtime Factor

Megaproject
A large scale project characterized by complexity, scope, duration, or financial investment, often involving multiple stakeholders.
Đăng bởi: Project Management

Memorandum Of Understanding
Nonbinding agreement stating each party's intentions.
Đăng bởi: Agreement/Understanding

Mesh
The density or spacing of points in a grid or network used in mathematical modeling or simulation, affecting accuracy and detail.
Đăng bởi: Mathematical Modeling

Method 635
Creativity technique and problem solving method for generating new and unusual ideas. Prof. Bernd Rohrbach developed it in 1968. Procedure: Each participant is given a piece of paper that is the same size. This is divided into 18 boxes with 3 columns and 6 rows. In the next step, each of the 6 participants is requested to write an idea in the first box of each column. Each participant passes his/her piece of paper on to the next person in the clockwise direction after around 3 to 5 minutes (depending of the level of difficulty). Now the next person in line must take the ideas that were already generated and supplement and further develop them. 635 stands for 6 participants, each of whom develops 3 ideas and passes them on 5 times. The advantage of this method is that many ideas are generated in a short time (max. 108 ideas in 30 minutes).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Metric
Metric: A standard for measurement.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Metrological characteristic
Distinguishing feature of measuring equipment, such as the measurement range or stability or the discrimination threshold. The metrological characteristic can influence the measurement results. Measuring equipment usually has several metrological characteristics. These can also be subject to calibration. (On the basis of DIN 9000:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Metrological confirmation
Activities required to ensure that measuring equipment fulfills the requirements for the intended use. Generally, metrological confirmation, calibration or verification includes every necessary adjustment or repair with subsequent recalibration, comparison with the metrological requirements for the intended use of the measuring equipment and all necessary sealing and labeling. Metrological confirmation is not achieved until the suitability of the measuring equipment for the intended use has been verified and documented. The requirements for the intended use include such criteria as measurement range, resolution and limiting values. Requirements for metrological confirmation are usually not identical to the product requirements and are also not specified there. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Metrology
Metrology: The science of weights and measures or of measurement; a system of weights and measures.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Metrology functional area
Functional area that is organizationally and technically responsible for specifying and implementing the measurement management system. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Mikake No Nouritsu
Apparent efficiency
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

MIL Q 9858
USA quality requirements in the military sector. The program was developed in 1963.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

MIL Q 9858A
MIL Q 9858A: A military standard that describes quality program requirements.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

MIL STD 105E
MIL STD 105E: A military standard that describes the sampling procedures and tables for inspection by attributes.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

MIL STD 45662A
MIL STD 45662A: A military standard that describes the requirements for creating and maintaining a calibration system for measurement and test equipment.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Milestone
A significant event, achievement, or point marking progress or completion in a project, often used for tracking and planning purposes.
Đăng bởi: Project Management

Military
Encompasses all Services: Regular, Reserve, and Cadet Forces.
Đăng bởi: Military Branches

Milk Run
Speeding material flow between facilities by routing vehicles to make multiple pick ups and drop offs.
Đăng bởi: Logistics

Milkrun
Logistic method for collecting or delivering materials in a single trip.
Đăng bởi: Supply Chain Management

Mind mapping
Technique for creating and working. A mind map shows the relationships between various concepts in the form of a graphical representation. British learning specialist Tony Buzan developed it in the early 1970s. Adressing both sides of the brain, contents are consequently easier to learn and store. Procedure: The central word (symbol or working title) is in the middle of the paper, which is always used in a horizontal format. Now main branches (lines) to sub topics are developed, with the associated thoughts written on the branches as key words. The formation of sub branches can be continued as required and the various “branches“ can be connected to one another. The result is a hierarchical arrangement of the thinking, which becomes more and more specific as one works outwards. The use of colors or images supports the “brain friendly“ work.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Mine Safety And Health Administration
Administers safety standards in mining operations.
Đăng bởi: Regulation

Mine Safety Rules
Regulations to prevent injuries and deaths in mines.
Đăng bởi: Regulation

Minimum Viable Product
The basic version of a product with enough features to satisfy initial users, allowing for testing and feedback gathering.
Đăng bởi: Product Development

Mining Equipment
Variety of stationary and mobile equipment in mining operations.
Đăng bởi: Equipment

Minitab Macros
Automated or predefined sequences of commands or operations in Minitab, used for automating repetitive tasks or analyses.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Software Tool

MINITAB Method
A specific methodology or approach for conducting analyses, tasks, or operations using the Minitab statistical software.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Software Methodology

Minitab Project MPJ file extension
The file format extension used in Minitab software to save and store project files containing data, analyses, and settings.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Software Tool

Minor nonconformity
Nonconformity that presumably only negligibly reduces the usability for the intended use. Or a deviation from the applicable stipulations that has only a negligible effect on the use or operation of a unit. (On the basis of DGQ Volume 11 04:2012)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Minor Stoppage
Brief stoppages affecting equipment performance.
Đăng bởi: Performance Factor

Missing Values Missing Groups Empty Cells
Absent or unrecorded data points or groups in a dataset resulting in empty or null cells, affecting analysis and interpretation.
Đăng bởi: Data Handling

Mission
Mission: An organization’s purpose.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Mission Control (Obeya Control)
Centralized command or control center for project or process oversight.
Đăng bởi: Project Management

Mist
Tiny liquid droplets formed by atomization or condensation, potentially hazardous.
Đăng bởi: Hazardous Droplets

Mistake
Human action leading to unintended results.
Đăng bởi: Human Error Analysis in Safety

Mistake proofing
Mistake proofing: Improving processes to prevent mistakes from being made or passed downstream. This term can be contrasted with error proofing, which means improving designs to prevent mistakes from being made. Some, however, consider these two terms synonymous and applicable to products and processes.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

MIT
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, U.S.A. www.mit.edu
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Mitigation
Factors or events preventing hazard escalation or reducing accident likelihood.
Đăng bởi: Risk Mitigation Strategies

Mixture Amount Experiment
An experimental design or study investigating the effects of varying amounts or proportions of components in a mixture.
Đăng bởi: Experimental Analysis

Mixture Design
An experimental design examining the impact of multiple factors or components mixed together on the response or output.
Đăng bởi: Experimental Analysis

Mixture Process Variable Design
An experimental design assessing the impact of varying process variables or factors on a mixture or blend in production.
Đăng bởi: Experimental Analysis

Mizusumashi
A term in Lean manufacturing referring to a material handling method ensuring the right parts are delivered in the right quantity at the right time.
Đăng bởi: Production Logistics

Mizusumashi (Water Spider)
Person or method for transporting materials within a production facility.
Đăng bởi: Lean Manufacturing

MOD
Management On Duty: Refers to managers or supervisors actively overseeing operations and tasks during their shifts.
Đăng bởi: Management Responsibility

Mod Policy
Mandatory rule setting direction and principles for MOD operations.
Đăng bởi: Legislation/Guideline

Mode
The most frequently occurring value or category in a dataset, representing the highest frequency among observations.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Model Reduction
A process of simplifying or streamlining complex models by eliminating redundant or less impactful components or variables.
Đăng bởi: Model Simplification

Model test
Suitability test of a material final product. It comprises a design review and a type test. (On the basis of DIN 55350 17)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Moment of Truth
Critical moments or interactions with customers that significantly influence their perception or satisfaction with a product or service.
Đăng bởi: Customer Experience

Monitoring
Continuous observation or surveillance of processes, systems, or performance indicators to identify deviations or trends.
Đăng bởi: Process Management

Monument
Monument: Any design, scheduling or production technology with scale requirements that call for designs, orders and products to be brought to the machine to wait in line for processing. The opposite of a right sized (see listing) machine.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Morphological box
Creativity and work technique developed by the Swiss astrophysicist Fritz Zwicky (1898 – 1974). The morphological box can help provide a transparent display of a problem‘ s solution field and make it easy to work out alternatives. Procedure: The first step is to describe the problem. Then parameters or criteria that give a general description of the problem are defined. In the third step, solutions are sought for each individual criterion. Subsequently, a table is created that has the criteria in the first column and the possible solutions in the other columns. The fifth step involves the evaluation of the solutions on the basis of selected characteristics. The resulting matrix (or box) makes it possible to combine the potential solutions into alternative concepts. The last step is the selection of the optimal solution.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

MoSCoW
A prioritization technique categorizing requirements into Must Have, Should Have, Could Have, and Won't Have categories.
Đăng bởi: Project Management

Motion
In Lean methodology, refers to any unnecessary movement or action that doesn't add value to the process or task.
Đăng bởi: Waste Reduction

Moving Average
A statistical calculation representing the average of a sequence of data points by considering a specified number of prior observations.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Moving Average Chart
A graphical representation displaying a series of moving averages over time, aiding in detecting trends or fluctuations.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Visualization

Moving Range
The difference between consecutive observations or data points in a sequence, used in statistical process control and variation analysis.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Moving Range Chart
A graphical tool illustrating the variation in moving ranges over time to monitor process stability and identify outliers.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Visualization

MP
Manufacturing Process: The sequence of steps or operations transforming raw materials into finished products in manufacturing.
Đăng bởi: Production Process

MRP
Material Requirements Planning: A system for managing and planning materials, ensuring availability for production and manufacturing.
Đăng bởi: Inventory Management

MSA
See Measurement System Analysis.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Msd (Musculoskeletal Disorders)
Disorders affecting the musculoskeletal system.
Đăng bởi: Musculoskeletal Health and Safety

Msha 5000 23 Form
Records compliance with mine employee training standards.
Đăng bởi: Record Keeping

Msha Cfr 30
Rules and regulations by MSHA for safe mining operations.
Đăng bởi: Regulation

Msha Part 46
Safety training specific to mining activities.
Đăng bởi: Regulation

MSR
Measuring and control technology, also called instrumentation and control engineering.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

MSSD
Mean Squared Successive Differences: A statistical measure assessing the differences between successive data points squared and averaged.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

MSTQ
Metrology, standards, testing, quality.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

MTBF
Mean Time Between Failures: A measure representing the average time elapsed between failures in a system or equipment.
Đăng bởi: Reliability Analysis

Mtbf (Mean Time Between Failures)
Average time between system failures.
Đăng bởi: System Reliability Measurement

MTBM
Meantime between maintenance. Average service life between maintenance activities.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

MTBQF
Mean Time Between Quality Failures: The average time interval between occurrences of quality related failures in a system or process.
Đăng bởi: Quality Measurement

MTBT
Mean Time Between Tasks: The average time between the completion of consecutive tasks or activities in a workflow or process.
Đăng bởi: Process Efficiency

MTTF
Mean Time To Failure: The average time expected until a system, component, or product experiences its first failure.
Đăng bởi: Reliability Analysis

Mttf (Mean Time To Failure)
Average time until system failure.
Đăng bởi: System Failure Prediction

MTTFF
Mean time to first failure. Average time until first malfunction.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

MTTM
Mean time to maintenance. Average time between two maintenance actions.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

MTTR
Mean time to repair. Maintenance time or average repair time.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Mttr (Mean Time To Restore/Repair)
Average time taken to restore or repair a system.
Đăng bởi: System Repair Time

Muda
Muda: Japanese for waste; any activity that consumes resources but creates no value for the customer.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Muda Walk
Walkthrough to identify waste and inefficiencies in processes.
Đăng bởi: Process Improvement

Multi Skilled Workers
Employees possessing multiple skill sets or competencies, capable of performing various tasks or roles within an organization.
Đăng bởi: Workforce Flexibility

Multicollinearity
A statistical phenomenon where independent variables in a regression model are highly correlated, impacting model accuracy.
Đăng bởi: Regression Analysis

Multiple Sampling
A statistical sampling technique involving taking multiple samples from a population to improve estimation accuracy.
Đăng bởi: Sampling Method

Multiple sourcing
Distribution of the same product that is to be procured or the same service to more than one supplier. This procurement principle is useful when it is necessary to guarantee a highly secure supply.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Multivari Chart
Multivariate Control Chart: A graphical tool illustrating the variation between variables simultaneously, aiding in quality control.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Visualization

Multivariate control chart
Multivariate control chart: A control chart for evaluating the stability of a process in terms of the levels of two or more variables or characteristics.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Multivariate Control Charts
Statistical tools monitoring multiple variables simultaneously to identify deviations or trends in a process or system.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Quality Control

Multivariate EWMA Chart
Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Chart: A control chart monitoring multiple variables using weighted averages over time.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Visualization

Multivariate Normal Distribution
A probability distribution representing multiple random variables that follow a normal distribution pattern.
Đăng bởi: Probability Distribution

Multivoting
Multivoting: A technique used to make a consensus decision when numerous alternatives exist or when those involved in making or approving the decision have differing opinions. Similar to nominal group technique (see listing).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Mura
Variation (imbalance). Japanese term that is a basis of the lean philosophy. Mura identifies losses that result from the incomplete harmonization of capacities in the framework of the production process. Typical signs of Mura are queues at the machine or idle times.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Muri
Overload. Japanese term that is a basis of the lean philosophy. This refers to losses that emerge due to overload or overexertion in the framework of the working process.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Must
Compulsory requirement within Defence.
Đăng bởi: Mandatory Requirement

MUT
Mean uptime.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Mutagenic
Substance causing hereditable genetic defects after exposure.
Đăng bởi: Condition/Classification

Mutual benefits
See Quality management principles.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Mutual recognition agreement (MRA)
Mutual recognition agreement (MRA): A formal agreement providing reciprocal recognition of the validity of other organizations’ deliverables, typically found in voluntary standards and conformity assessment groups.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Myers Briggs type indicator (MBTI)
Myers Briggs type indicator (MBTI): A method and instrument for identifying an individual’s personality type based on Carl Jung’s theory of personality preferences.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

N

N
N: The number of units in a population.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

NACCB
National Accreditation Council for Certification Bodies. Former national British accreditation body. See UKAS.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Nagara
A Japanese term in Lean manufacturing referring to flow or smoothness in production processes, aiming for efficient workflow.
Đăng bởi: Process Efficiency

Nagara Sagyou
Simultaneous operation
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Nagara Suicchi
Specially designed switch that can be activated with the swipe of a hand thus allowing operator to activate while moving, swipe switch
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Nagara system
Nagara system: Smooth production flow, ideally one piece at a time, characterized by synchronization (balancing) of production processes and maximum use of available time; includes overlapping of operations where practical. A nagara production system is one in which seemingly unrelated tasks can be produced simultaneously by the same operator.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

NAGUS
Normenausschuss Grundlagen des Umweltschutzes im DIN [DIN Standards Committee Principles of Environmental Protection].
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Narcotic
Substance depressing brain functions.
Đăng bởi: Substances Affecting Brain Function

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): An agency of the U.S. Department of Commerce that develops and promotes measurements, standards and technology, and manages the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

National measurement standard
Recognized measurement standard for a specific physical quantity. It forms the basis for the determination of the characteristic value of all other measurement standards of the quantity in question. An official national ruling is the basis for the recognition in a country. (On the basis of DIN 1319 1)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Natural Log of Stdev Taguchi
The natural logarithm of the standard deviation in Taguchi methods, used in quality improvement and variation reduction.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Notation

Natural team
Natural team: A team of individuals with common or similar responsibilities and authorities drawn from a single workgroup. Similar to a process improvement team except that it is not cross functional in composition and it is usually permanent.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Naze
5W1H, keep asking "why"
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

NDT
Non destructive testing.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Near Miss
Incident with the potential for an accident but no visible result.
Đăng bởi: Accident Near Miss Identification

NEBOSH
National Examination Board in Occupational Safety and Health: An organization providing certifications in health and safety.
Đăng bởi: Safety Certification

Negative Binomial Distribution
A probability distribution representing the number of failures before a specified number of successes occurs in a sequence of independent trials.
Đăng bởi: Probability Distribution

Negligence
Omission leading to preventable accidents.
Đăng bởi: Negligence and Accident Prevention

Nekku
Bottleneck, constraint, problem area that slows down the whole
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Net Workdays
The total number of workdays available in a specific timeframe, accounting for holidays, weekends, and non working days.
Đăng bởi: Time Calculation

New management planning tools
New management planning tools: Method(s) for achieving expected outcomes that previously have not been used.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

New Seven
Also: New Seven Tools for Quality Control. See Management tools.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Next operation as customer
Next operation as customer: The concept of internal customers in which every operation is both a receiver and a provider.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

NextGen
NextGen: A quality professional 40 years old or younger or someone who is new to a quality role within their organization.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Nhs (National Health Service)
National healthcare service provider.
Đăng bởi: Healthcare Service Provider

Nine windows
Nine windows: A tool used to investigate a past or potential problem at the super system and subsystem levels, in addition to considering the problem only in the present and at the system level.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

NIST
National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg (USA). www.nist.gov
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Nlims
Navy Lessons and Information Management System used by Navy Command.
Đăng bởi: Information Management System

Nmiss
The count or number of missing values or empty cells in a dataset, indicating observations or data points that are not recorded.
Đăng bởi: Data Analysis

No Demand
Time when there's no requirement for production.
Đăng bởi: Downtime Factor

No Touch Production
A manufacturing concept aiming to minimize or eliminate human intervention in certain production processes to reduce errors or waste.
Đăng bởi: Automation in Manufacturing

Noise
Any audible sound, wanted or unwanted.
Đăng bởi: Acoustic Hazard

Noise Factors Taguchi
Factors or variables in a process that contribute to variation but are beyond direct control, targeted for minimizing their impact.
Đăng bởi: Variation Reduction

Noise Risk Assessment
Documented assessment of noise related risks faced by personnel.
Đăng bởi: Noise Exposure Evaluation

Nominal group technique
Nominal group technique: A technique, similar to brainstorming, to generate ideas on a particular subject. Team members are asked to silently write down as many ideas as possible. Each member is asked to share one idea per round, which is recorded. After all ideas are recorded, they are discussed and prioritized by the group.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Nominal value
Characteristic value of a quantitative characteristic in order to divide up the scope. (On the basis of DIN 55350 12)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Non Graph Output File Formats
File formats used to save or export data or results that are not graphical representations, such as text, tables, or reports.
Đăng bởi: File Formats

Non Statistical Quality Control
Quality control without statistical methods, often relying on visual checks.
Đăng bởi: Quality Control

Non Utilized Talent
Employees' skills or capabilities within an organization that remain underutilized or untapped, affecting productivity.
Đăng bởi: Workforce Management

Non Value Added (NVA)
Activities or processes in a workflow that do not contribute to the value or quality of the final product or service.
Đăng bởi: Waste Identification

Non Value Added Time
The time consumed in a process by activities or tasks that do not contribute to the overall value or quality of the output.
Đăng bởi: Time Analysis

Non Value Adding
Refers to processes, tasks, or activities that do not contribute value or quality to the final product, often considered as waste.
Đăng bởi: Process Improvement

Non Value Adding Activities
Activities or tasks within a process that do not directly contribute to the value or quality of the final product or service.
Đăng bởi: Process Optimization

Noncentrality Parameter
A statistical measure related to the non central distribution, indicating deviation from a central value in hypothesis testing.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Nonconforming record (NCR)
Nonconforming record (NCR): A permanent record for accounting and preserving the knowledge of a nonconforming condition.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Nonconformity
Nonconformity: The nonfulfillment of a specified requirement. Also see “blemish,” “defect” and “imperfection.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Nonconformity classification, classification of nonconformities
Classification of a unit‘s potential nonconformities into nonconformity classes. The evaluation depends on the effects of the nonconformity. Internationally, nonconformities are divided into three nonconformity classes: Critical nonconformities: – Major nonconformities – Minor nonconformities. (On the basis of DGQ Volume 11 04:2012)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Nonconformity costs, costs of nonconformity
Also called cost of failure. Costs resulting from a nonconformity. Nonconformities result in costs. Nonconformity costs can be divided into two groups, depending on where they were found: internal nonconformity costs and external nonconformity costs. An organization should define what it sees as internal and external failure costs. DIN 55350 11 gives these examples of nonconformity costs: Costs for remedying or mitigating a nonconformity, for rework, repair, scrapping, disposal, handling of rejects, unplanned sorting test, repeated inspection, downtime, guarantee and product liability. (On the basis of DIN 55350 11)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Nonconformity criterion
Characteristic that can be used to determine if there is a nonconformity.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Nonconformity prevention
Development of products and production processes in order to manufacture conforming products. (On the basis of ISO 16949 2009)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Nonconformity weighting, weighting of nonconformities
Classification of a unit‘s possible nonconformities into nonconformity weight classes. This classification takes place after the nonconformities have been rated according to their weight ( nonconformity‘ s significance for the organization).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Nondefective Rate (Q)
Measures the quality of output produced without defects or rework.
Đăng bởi: Quality Metric

Nondestructive testing and evaluation (NDT, NDE)
Nondestructive testing and evaluation (NDT, NDE): Testing and evaluation methods that do not damage or destroy the test specimen.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Nonlinear parameter estimation
Nonlinear parameter estimation: A method whereby the arduous and labor intensive task of multiparameter model calibration can be carried out automatically under the control of a computer.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Nonlinear Regression
A regression analysis technique modeling relationships between variables using nonlinear equations or curves.
Đăng bởi: Regression Analysis

Nonparametric Test
Statistical tests not relying on specific distribution assumptions, suitable for non normal or ordinal data analysis.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Test

Nonparametric tests
Nonparametric tests: All tests involving ranked data (data that can be put in order). Nonparametric tests are often used in place of their parametric counterparts when certain assumptions about the underlying population are questionable.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Nonvalue added
Nonvalue added: A term that describes a process step or function that is not required for the direct achievement of process output. This step or function is identified and examined for potential elimination. In a contractual situation, it can be those features or process steps that a customer would be unwilling to pay for if given the option. Also see “value added.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Noritsugi Umpan
Truck transfer system
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Norm (behavioral)
Norm (behavioral): Expectations of how a person or persons will behave in a given situation based on established protocols, rules of conduct or accepted social practices.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Normal distribution
The distribution behavior of a process in control usually follows a typical pattern. The most commonly occurring dispersion pattern is the (Gaussian) normal distribution. It occurs when bilateral variability around a target value is exclusively due to random causes.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Normal distribution (statistical)
Normal distribution (statistical): The charting of a data set in which most of the data points are concentrated around the average (mean), thus forming a bell shaped curve.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Normality Test
Statistical tests assessing whether a dataset follows a normal distribution or Gaussian distribution pattern.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Test

Notification
Designation of an accreditation body for the performance of conformity assessment procedures on the basis of an EU directive.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Nouritsu
Productivity, equal to the number of accepted and sold units produced divided by man hours used to produce it
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Now NOW
A management philosophy focusing on the importance of immediate action and responsiveness to current issues or opportunities.
Đăng bởi: Management Philosophy

NP Chart
Number of Defective Items Chart: A control chart used to monitor the number of defective items in a sample or subgroup.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Control Chart

NQSZ
Normenausschuss Grundlagen des Umweltschutzes im DIN [DIN Standards Committee Principles of Environmental Protection
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Nscores
A measure or calculation of the number of times an event or outcome occurs within a dataset, often used in statistical analysis.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Null hypothesis
Statement that is used to select a subset. This subset is determined from the probability distribution allowed for the statistical test as a whole. (On the basis of DGQ Volume 11 04:2012)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Null hypothesis (Ho)
Hypothesis that there are no differences between the groups.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Number of affected units chart
Number of affected units chart: A control chart for evaluating the stability of a process in terms of the total number of units in a sample in which an event of a given classification occurs.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Number of Distinct Categories
The count of unique or separate categories or classes present in a dataset, frequently used in categorical data analysis.
Đăng bởi: Data Analysis

O

Object
A product, service, process, person, organization, system or resource. Any material or immaterial entity or item or anything conceivable. (On the basis of ISO 9000: 2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Objective
Objective: A target or goal to be achieved.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Objective evidence
Data that prove the existence or truth of something. Observation, measurement and testing are means for producing objective evidence. (On the basis of ISO 9000: 2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Observation
A single data point or measurement recorded in a study, experiment, or analysis, contributing to the dataset's information.
Đăng bởi: Data Point

Observed Performance
The actual or real performance achieved in a process, task, or operation, measured against predefined standards or expectations.
Đăng bởi: Performance Measurement

OC
See Operating characteristic curve.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Occupational health and safety
In the EU, this is regulated by standardized directives that the member states are to implement into national law. Occupational health and safety includes safe working conditions (e.g., mandatory helmets), health protection (avoidance of chronic illnesses or impairments resulting from hazardous substances, noise, etc.) and personal protection (maternity leave, protection of young people). In Germany the basis is the “Gesetz über die Durchführung von Maßnahmen des Arbeitsschutzes zur Verbesserung der Sicherheit und des Gesundheitsschutzes der Beschäftigten bei der Arbeit“ (Law regulating the performance of occupational health and safety measures in order to improve the safety and health protection of employees at work – ArbSchG from August 7, 1996).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Occupational health and safety management
All coordinated activities and actions for the establishment, longterm guarantee and improvement of occupational health and safety. In particular, occupational health and safety management is obligated to fulfill numerous statutory requirements according to which suitable technical, organizational and personal actions are to be taken that ensure and improve the safety and health protection of the employees when performing their work.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Occurrence
Broad terms covering Accident/Incident, Near Miss, Unsafe Act, Unsafe Condition, Dangerous Occurrence.
Đăng bởi: Safety Event Classification

ODBC
Open Database Connectivity: A standard interface for accessing and managing databases using SQL based commands or queries.
Đăng bởi: Database Management

Odds Ratio
A statistical measure quantifying the association or likelihood of an event occurring concerning two groups or conditions.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

OEE
Overall Equipment Effectiveness: A metric assessing the efficiency of equipment or machinery in manufacturing or production processes.
Đăng bởi: Performance Metric

OFFICE TPM
Total Productive Maintenance in Office Environments: An adaptation of TPM principles and practices applied in office settings.
Đăng bởi: Maintenance Management

OFI
Opportunity for Improvement. Audit finding that is used by various certification organizations. See Recommendation.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Oh (Occupational Health)
Health related to the workplace.
Đăng bởi: Workplace Health Services

OH&S
Occupational health and safety. (On the basis of ISO 45001:2018)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

OH&S Control Measures
Safety protocols, procedures, or interventions implemented to mitigate risks and ensure compliance with health and safety regulations.
Đăng bởi: Safety Measures

OHRIS
Occupational Health and Risk Management System. Management system to protect the health and safety of the employees and people living close to industrial plants. Accident rates and workrelated illnesses should be kept as low as possible by applying the standard. The Bavarian Arbeitsministerium (Department of Labor) developed OHRIS and published it for the first time in 1998.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Ohs (Occupational Health And Safety)
Health and safety in the workplace.
Đăng bởi: Workplace Health and Safety

OHSAS
Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

OHSAS 18001
Occupational health and safety management system specification. Certifiable international standard for an occupational health and safety management system. OHSAS was developed by the British Standards Institution in cooperation with international certification companies. ISO 45001 serves to repeal OHSAS 18001.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

OHSAS 18002
Guidelines to implement OHSAS 18001. Instruction to implement an OHSMS (occupational health and safety management system).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

OHSMS
See Occupational health and safety management.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

OI
See Operator inspection.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

OKR
Objectives and Key Results: A goal setting framework defining objectives and measurable outcomes to achieve strategic goals.
Đăng bởi: Performance Management

ON
Austrian Standards Institute with headquarters in Vienna. www.as institute.at
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

On Standard Operating Efficiency (OOE)
A measure indicating the proportion of time a machine or equipment is operating at the expected or standard performance level.
Đăng bởi: Efficiency Measurement

On Time Delivery
A metric evaluating the punctuality of delivering products or services within specified or agreed upon timeframes to customers.
Đăng bởi: Delivery Performance

One factor method
Traditional method for conducting experiments. In the search for the optimal settings (“best settings“) for the input variables/factors of a process, only one factor is changed at a time and then the change in the output variables is measured. Unlike in DoE, possible interrelations among the input variables are not taken into account here.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

One Piece Flow
A manufacturing concept aiming for a continuous and uninterrupted flow of single units through the production process.
Đăng bởi: Lean Manufacturing

One sample t test
Statistical method to compare the average value of a population with a specification.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

One touch exchange of dies
One touch exchange of dies: The reduction of die setup to a single step. Also see “single minute exchange of dies,” “internal setup” and “external setup.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Ons (Office Of National Statistics)
National statistics office.
Đăng bởi: National Statistics Provider

Operating characteristic curve
Probability of acceptance of an inspection lot as a function of its quality level in the framework of an acceptance sampling inspection. (On the basis of DGQ Volume 11 04:2012)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Operating characteristic curve (OC curve)
Operating characteristic curve (OC curve): A graph to determine the probability of accepting lots as a function of the lots’ or processes’ quality level when using various sampling plans. There are three types: type A curves, which give the probability of acceptance for an individual lot coming from finite production (will not continue in the future); type B curves, which give the probability of acceptance for lots coming from a continuous process; and type C curves, which (for a continuous sampling plan) give the long run percentage of product accepted during the sampling phase.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Operating Characteristics Curve (OC Curve)
See Operating Characteristic Curve.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Analysis

Operating Duty Holder
Accountable individual managing risk within their area of responsibility and possessing suitable qualifications.
Đăng bởi: Risk Management Responsibility

Operating expenses
Operating expenses: The money required for a system to convert inventory into throughput.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Operating instructions
Document that should exclusively point out hazards. In Germany, operating instructions are prepared for biological agents, hazardous substances and their preparations that contain such substances at a level greater than a certain percent, and for machines and other technical systems. The Employer‘s Liability Insurance Associations recommend the following contents for operating instructions: Scope; hazards for people and the environment; protective measures and rules of conduct; conduct in case of disturbances; conduct in case of accidents; first aid; proper disposal/maintenance (for machines/technical systems); and consequences in the event of non compliance.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Operation
Coordinated actions authorized by a formal order for a military purpose.
Đăng bởi: Procedure/Activity

Operation accuracy
Production accuracy resulting from the production equipment.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Operational Definition
A precise and detailed explanation or description of a concept, variable, or process, outlining how it will be measured or observed.
Đăng bởi: Data Definition

Operational Imperative
Circumstances allowing operations outside defined parameters.
Đăng bởi: Condition/Circumstance

Operational Safe System Of Work
Work method incorporating control measures from risk assessment.
Đăng bởi: Procedure/Guideline

Operations
Operations: Work or steps to transform raw materials to finished product.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Operator Cycle Time
The time taken by an operator to complete a specific task, operation, or cycle within a production or manufacturing process.
Đăng bởi: Performance Measurement

Operator inspection
Quality inspection that is conducted by the operator itself. It is a necessary part of quality control. (On the basis of DIN 55350 17)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

OPL
Overall Process Loss: A measure assessing the total loss or inefficiency across the entire production or operational process.
Đăng bởi: Efficiency Assessment

Opportunities
The potential chances or instances within a process where defects or errors can occur, offering prospects for improvement.
Đăng bởi: Improvement Potential

Opportunity per Unit
The count or frequency of defect opportunities within each unit or item produced, evaluated in quality and defect analysis.
Đăng bởi: Quality Measurement

Optimal Design
A design or configuration maximizing performance, efficiency, or desired outcomes while minimizing resources or constraints.
Đăng bởi: Design Optimization

Optimization Plot
A graphical representation illustrating the optimization process or the relationship between variables in an optimized system.
Đăng bởi: Graphical Representation

Order Lead Time
Production lead time plus time to get the product to the customer.
Đăng bởi: Logistics

Order To Cash Time
Time elapsed from customer order receipt to receiving cash payment.
Đăng bởi: Business Process

Organisation
Entity with its functions and administration.
Đăng bởi: Entity/Corporate Structure

Organization
A structure composed of people and facilities that is characterized as an arrangement of processes, responsibilities, authorities and relationships. As examples, the standard lists: Company, corporation, firm, enterprise, institution, charity, sole trader, association, or parts or combinations of these. An organization can have a public or private nature. The standard points out that this definition applies in the framework of standards on quality management systems and that the term “organization“ is defined differently in the ISO/IEC Guide 2. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Organization with development responsibility
Organization that is permitted to develop new product specifications or change existing product specifications. This responsibility also comprises the testing and verification of the development performance in the framework of the application that was specified by the customer (On the basis of IATF 16949:2016).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Organizational excellence
Organizational excellence: Achievement by an organization of consistent superior performance—for example, outputs that exceed meeting objectives, needs or expectations.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Organizational structure
Orderly arrangement of responsibilities, authorities and relationships between people. The formal organizational structure is usually shown in a quality manual or a quality plan (for a project). Important interfaces to external organizations can be contained in the scope of an organizational structure. (On the basis of ISO 9000:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Original equipment manufacturer (OEM)
Original equipment manufacturer (OEM): An organization that uses product components from one or more other organizations to build a product that it sells under its own organization name and brand.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Orthogonal Design
An experimental design where factors or variables are independent or uncorrelated, simplifying analysis and reducing interference.
Đăng bởi: Experimental Design

Orthogonal Regression
A regression analysis method modeling relationships between variables that are mutually perpendicular or independent.
Đăng bởi: Regression Analysis

Osha
OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) sets and enforces workplace safety and health regulations.
Đăng bởi: Safety

OSHE
Occupational Safety, Health, and Environment: Refers to standards and practices ensuring workplace safety, health, and environmental protection.
Đăng bởi: Workplace Safety

OTBF
Operating time between failures.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

OTIF
On Time In Full: A performance metric evaluating the delivery of products or services on time and meeting customer requirements completely.
Đăng bởi: Delivery Performance

OTTFF
Operating time to first failure. Uptime.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Out of control process
Out of control process: A process in which the statistical measure being evaluated is not in a state of statistical control. In other words, the variations among the observed sampling results cannot be attributed to a constant system of chance causes. Also see “in control process.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Out of spec
Out of spec: A term that indicates a unit does not meet a given requirement or specification.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Outlier
Measured value of a sample with an unusually large deviation from other values from the sample that deviate randomly from one another. This deviation is so large that it presumably originates from another population or is the result of an error that occurred during the measurement.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Output
The result, product, or information obtained from a process, operation, or system, representing the final or intermediate deliverable.
Đăng bởi: Process Outcome

Output Measures
Metrics or indicators quantifying the results, outcomes, or outputs achieved in a process, used for performance evaluation.
Đăng bởi: Performance Measurement

Outputs
Outputs: Products, materials, services or information provided to customers (internal or external) from a process.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Outsourced processes
Selected processes that the organization assigns to external partners instead of handling them itself. Outsourced processes are characterized by being required for the quality management system. The organization retains the responsibility for the results of these processes and must ensure that the outsourced processes also fulfill customer requirements and statutory and regulatory requirements. Consequently the organization must appropriately control them. (Cf. ISO 9001:2015)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Overall Equipment Effectiveness (Oee)
A measure used to assess the efficiency of manufacturing equipment by evaluating Availability, Performance, and Quality rates.
Đăng bởi: Key Performance Indicator (KPI)

Overhead costs
Costs that cannot be directly attributed to an activity unit. Instead they have to be apportioned to the cost centers according to a distribution key.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Overlaid Contour Plot
A graphical tool displaying multiple contour plots overlaid on top of each other for visual comparison or analysis.
Đăng bởi: Graphical Representation

Overproduction
Producing more than required, contributing to waste and hiding other issues.
Đăng bởi: Waste Elimination

Overseas
To or in a foreign country outside UK territorial waters.
Đăng bởi: Location/Environment

Overtime Rate
The additional pay rate or compensation provided for work done beyond regular working hours or shifts.
Đăng bởi: Compensation Calculation

Overview diagram
Depiction of the starting and end points of a process. This overview concentrates on the highest level of the process depiction.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Oxidizers
Substances that can oxidize other materials.
Đăng bởi: Health Hazard

P

P chart
P chart: See “percent chart.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

P FMEA
See Process FMEA.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

P M Analysis
Parameter Measurement Analysis: A method analyzing the relationship between process parameters and measurements in quality improvement.
Đăng bởi: Quality Analysis

p Value
A statistical measure indicating the probability of obtaining results at least as extreme as the observed results under a null hypothesis.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

P.D.C.A. Cycle
Plan Do Check Act Cycle: A continuous improvement methodology consisting of planning, implementing, evaluating, and adjusting processes.
Đăng bởi: Process Improvement Cycle

Pa
See Probability of acceptance.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Pacemaker Process
Process setting the pace for the entire value stream.
Đăng bởi: Process Management

Painted floor
Painted floor: A lean manufacturing technique to provide visual control (for example, to indicate a nonconforming material area or to determine stock levels).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Paired t Test
A statistical test comparing the means of two related groups or conditions, determining if their means are significantly different.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Test

Pairwise Statistics
Statistical comparisons or analysis conducted between pairs of variables or groups within a dataset, often used in research or analysis.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Analysis

Panel
A group or committee assembled to discuss, evaluate, or make decisions on specific matters or topics within an organization.
Đăng bởi: Group Discussion

Paradigm
A set of beliefs, concepts, or assumptions serving as a framework for understanding or interpreting a particular subject or field.
Đăng bởi: Conceptual Framework

Parallel operation
Parallel operation: A technique to create economy of scale by having two operators work together to perform tasks on either side of a machine. Using this technique reduces the time it takes a single operator to move from one side to the other, making the overall process more efficient. An example of parallel operation is having two people work on a changeover, supplementing each other’s work effort.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Parameter
Quantity to identify the probability distribution.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Paraphrasing
Technique in audits: the auditor repeats statements in his/her own words.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Pareto
The Italian national economist and sociologist Vilfredo Pareto (1848–1923) discovered that most of the effects are due to a few causes. The Pareto principle states that 80% of the effects result from 20% of the possible influencing factors.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Pareto analysis
On the basis of the 80 – 20 rule (Pareto Principle, named for the political economist, sociologist and statistician Vilfredo Pareto) which can be seen in many different areas: 20% of the nonconformities cause 80% of the nonconformity costs; 20% of the customers are responsible for 80% of the revenue; when solving a problem, 80% of the solution will be worked out in 20% of the time; 20% of the causes are responsible for 80% of the effects. The Pareto analysis is an investigative method that orders all of the factors that influence a situation under observation based on their relative influence. The objective is to make it possible to concentrate a detailed examination on the primary factors. Structurally, the Pareto analysis is related to the ABC analysis, which also provides a classification according to the significance of the factors.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Pareto chart
Pareto chart: A graphical tool for ranking causes from most significant to least significant. It is based on the Pareto principle, named after 19th century economist Vilfredo Pareto, and suggests that most effects come from relatively few causes; that is, 80% of the effects come from 20% of the possible causes. Also known as the "80 20 rule" (see listing). One of the “seven tools of quality” (see listing).
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Pareto diagram
The Pareto diagram is a quality tool (Q7) and is used for nonconformity analysis. The preparation of the collected data allows a statement to be made on the significance of individual nonconformity categories. A bar diagram is drawn up for this. The bars show the values for the nonconformity categories that have been sorted according to size. A cumulative curve in the diagram indicates the point on the x axis at which the nonconformities have reached the level of 80% of all nonconformities. The Pareto diagram is based on the 80 – 20 rule, which means that around 20% of the types of nonconformities are responsible for roughly 80% of all nonconformities.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Pareto Principle
The principle suggesting that a significant majority (80%) of effects come from a minority (20%) of causes or inputs in a system.
Đăng bởi: Principle

Parproducts
A term possibly associated with products offered in parallel or simultaneously, context dependent.
Đăng bởi: Context Dependent

Parsums
Potentially a term related to summing or adding elements in parallel or simultaneously, context dependent.
Đăng bởi: Context Dependent

Partial Least Squares Regression
A statistical method used in regression analysis when there are multiple interrelated independent variables or predictors.
Đăng bởi: Regression Analysis

Partnership/alliance
Partnership/alliance: A strategy and a formal relationship between a supplier and a customer that engenders cooperation for the benefit of both parties.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Parts per million (PPM)
Parts per million (PPM): A metric reporting the number of defects normalized to a population of one million for ease of comparison.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Pat (Portable Appliance Testing)
Testing of portable appliances for safety.
Đăng bởi: Portable Appliance Safety Testing

PCA
Process capability analysis. See Process capability.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Pcbs (Polychlorinated Biphenyls)
Hazardous industrial chemicals.
Đăng bởi: Hazardous Chemicals

PCDA
Plan, Check, Do, Act: A variant or alternative representation of the PDCA cycle, focusing on planning, checking, doing, and acting.
Đăng bởi: Process Improvement Cycle

PCM
Parts Count Method: Method to determine reliability characteristics
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

PD
Policy Deployment. See Management by policy.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

PDA
Plant Data Acquisition: General term for the acquisition of data in companies.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

PDCA
See PDCA cycle.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Pdca (Deming Cycle)
Plan Do Check Act cycle for continuous improvement.
Đăng bởi: Quality Management

PDCA cycle
PDCA cycle: See “plan do check act cycle.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

PDP
Product Development Process: The series of steps or phases involved in bringing a new product from conception to market launch.
Đăng bởi: Product Development

PDSA
Plan Do Study Act: An iterative problem solving method involving planning, implementation, observation, and adjustment.
Đăng bởi: Problem Solving Method

Pe Sume Ka
Pacemaker, the aspects of a line that facilitate completing processes within the takt time
Đăng bởi: Japanese KAIZEN/CI

Peak Sound Pressure
Maximum sound pressure experienced by personnel.
Đăng bởi: Noise Level Threshold

Pearson Residuals
Residuals or errors calculated in regression analysis using Pearson's correlation coefficient, measuring the discrepancy between observed and predicted values.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Pearson's r
Pearson's Correlation Coefficient: A statistical measure quantifying the strength and direction of a linear relationship between two variables.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Percent
A mathematical expression representing a portion of a whole expressed as a fraction of 100, commonly used in percentages.
Đăng bởi: Mathematical Notation

Percent chart
Percent chart: A control chart for evaluating the stability of a process in terms of the percentage of the total number of units in a sample in which an event of a given classification occurs. Also referred to as a proportion chart.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Percentile Line
A line on a graph indicating specific percentiles or points in a dataset, commonly used in visualizing distribution patterns.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Visualization

Percentiles
Divisions or values in a dataset representing specific percentages of observations or values below which certain percentages fall.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Percents for Percentiles
The corresponding percentages or ranks for specific percentile values in a dataset, providing relative positions or measures.
Đăng bởi: Statistical Measure

Perfection
A principle or goal aiming for the elimination of defects, errors, waste, or inefficiencies in processes or systems.
Đăng bởi: Quality Improvement

Performance
Quantitatively or qualitatively measurable result; management of activities, processes, products, services, systems or organizations. (On the basis of ISO 19011:2018)
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Performance audit
Examination of the performance (on the basis of characteristics), effectiveness and possibilities to improve the performance of both the management system and its individual aspects. See Audit.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Performance figure
Characteristic value that can be used to monitor and evaluate the performance of a process and for its control. Also called “performance indicator“ or “success factor“.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Performance measurement system
Performance figures (indicators) are values for measuring performances or the efficiency of processes or to determine achieved success. They are used to manage and control at all levels. The company‘s entire performance measurement system provides information about production and finances, but more importantly it covers all action areas (e.g., management, customers, employees, objective management, situations involving the environment and relevant changes). Systematic analysis of the performance figures and their correlation makes it possible to recognize if, where and when a company has to set new priorities and where there are any imbalances between fields of action.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Performance Rate (P)
Measures the speed or efficiency of equipment compared to its maximum capacity.
Đăng bởi: Efficiency Metric

Performance specification
Description of how the contractor is to implement the complete set of requirements from the requirement specification.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Performance standard
Performance standard: The metric against which a complete action is compared.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Permissible Exposure Limits
Legal exposure limits to chemical or safety hazards.
Đăng bởi: Regulation

Permit To Work
Authorization for hazardous activities or areas.
Đăng bởi: Safety Authorization Procedures

Permutation
A rearrangement or reordering of elements or values in a set or sequence, often used in combinatorial mathematics or statistics.
Đăng bởi: Mathematical Concept

Personal Data
Information related to an identifiable living individual.
Đăng bởi: Data Classification

Personal Protective Equipment
Equipment intended to protect against workplace risks.
Đăng bởi: Equipment/Protection

Personal Protective Equipment (Ppe)
Clothing and gear for protecting against job hazards.
Đăng bởi: Equipment

PERT chart
Program Evaluation Review Technique Chart: A visual project management tool illustrating task dependencies, durations, and critical path.
Đăng bởi: Project Management

PEST analysis
Variants building on the same framework: STEP, PESTLE. Acronym for the analysis of political, economic, social, technological (and, if applicable, legal and environmental) factors making up the environment of the organization.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Pfd (Probability Of Failure On Demand)
Probability of failure for a plant protection system.
Đăng bởi: System Failure Probability

PHA
Preliminary Hazard Analysis: An initial risk assessment identifying potential hazards or risks before more detailed analysis or actions.
Đăng bởi: Risk Assessment

Physical transformation task
Physical transformation task: A step taking a specific product from raw materials to a finished product delivered to the customer. Also see “value stream” and “ information flow.”
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Pi 3.141
The mathematical constant ? (pi), approximately equal to 3.141, representing the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter.
Đăng bởi: Mathematical Constant

Pictograms
Symbols used in hazard communication.
Đăng bởi: Safety Measure

Pie chart
Also called a circle chart. Data are shown in a picture as pieces of a pie.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Pillars Evolution
Potentially a term describing the development, growth, or transformation of foundational or key elements in a process or system.
Đăng bởi: Context Dependent

Pilot
A trial or preliminary implementation of a new process, system, or product before full scale deployment or implementation.
Đăng bởi: Trial Implementation

PIMS study
Profit Impact of Marketing Strategy. Tool for strategy analysis. A sector‘s profi tability can be measured with the following three categories: competitive situation, production structure and sales/ market situation. The PIMS database is based on a General Electric Group investigation conducted in the late 1960s.
Đăng bởi: Productivity and quality management

Pitch