From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Kaizen (改善?), Japanese for “improvement”, or “change for the better” refers to philosophy or practices that focus upon continuous improvement of processes in manufacturing, engineering, and business management. It has been applied in healthcare,[1] psychotherapy,[2] life-coaching, government, banking, and other industries. When used in the business sense and applied to the workplace, kaizen refers to activities that continually improve all functions, and involves all employees from the CEO to the assembly line workers. It also applies to processes, such as purchasing and logistics, that cross organizational boundaries into the supply chain.[3] By improving standardized activities and processes, kaizen aims to eliminate waste (see lean manufacturing). Kaizen was first implemented in several Japanese businesses after the Second World War, influenced in part by American business and quality management teachers who visited the country. It has since spread throughout the world[4] and is now being implemented in many other venues besides just business and productivity.


Kaizen is a daily process, the purpose of which goes beyond simple productivity improvement. It is also a process that, when done correctly, humanizes the workplace, eliminates overly hard work (“muri”), and teaches people how to perform experiments on their work using the scientific method and how to learn to spot and eliminate waste in business processes. In all, the process suggests a humanized approach to workers and to increasing productivity: “The idea is to nurture the company’s human resources as much as it is to praise and encourage participation in kaizen activities.”[5] Successful implementation requires “the participation of workers in the improvement.”[6] People at all levels of an organization participate in kaizen, from the CEO down to janitorial staff, as well as external stakeholders when applicable. The format for kaizen can be individual, suggestion system, small group, or large group. At Toyota, it is usually a local improvement within a workstation or local area and involves a small group in improving their own work environment and productivity. This group is often guided through the kaizen process by a line supervisor; sometimes this is the line supervisor’s key role. Kaizen on a broad, cross-departmental scale in companies, generates total quality management, and frees human efforts through improving productivity using machines and computing power.[citation needed]

While kaizen (at Toyota) usually delivers small improvements, the culture of continual aligned small improvements and standardization yields large results in the form of compound productivity improvement. This philosophy differs from the “command and control” improvement programs of the mid-twentieth century. Kaizen methodology includes making changes and monitoring results, then adjusting. Large-scale pre-planning and extensive project scheduling are replaced by smaller experiments, which can be rapidly adapted as new improvements are suggested.[citation needed]

In modern usage, a focused kaizen that is designed to address a particular issue over the course of a week is referred to as a “kaizen blitz” or “kaizen event”. These are limited in scope, and issues that arise from them are typically used in later blitzes.[citation needed]


After WWII, to help restore Japan, American occupation forces brought in American experts to help with the rebuilding of Japanese industry. The Civil Communications Section (CCS) developed a Management Training Program that taught statistical control methods as part of the overall material. This course was developed and taught by Homer Sarasohn and Charles Protzman in 1949-50. Sarasohn recommended W. Edwards Deming for further training in Statistical Methods.

The Economic and Scientific Section (ESS) group was also tasked with improving Japanese management skills and Edgar McVoy was instrumental in bringing Lowell Mellen to Japan to properly install the Training Within Industry (TWI) programs in 1951.

Prior to the arrival of Mellen in 1951, the ESS group had a training film to introduce the three TWI “J” programs (Job Instruction, Job Methods and Job Relations)—the film was titled “Improvement in 4 Steps” (Kaizen eno Yon Dankai). Thus the original introduction of “Kaizen” to Japan. For the pioneering, introduction, and implementation of Kaizen in Japan, the Emperor of Japan awarded the 2nd Order Medal of the Sacred Treasure to Dr. Deming in 1960. Consequently, the Union of Japanese Science and Engineering (JUSE) instituted the annual Deming Prizes for achievement in quality and dependability of products.

On October 18, 1989, JUSE awarded the Deming Prize to Florida Power & Light Co. (FPL), based in the US, for its exceptional accomplishments in process and quality control management. FPL was the first company outside Japan to win the Deming Prize.

Reference: US National Archives – SCAP collection – PR NewsWire


The Toyota Production System is known for kaizen, where all line personnel are expected to stop their moving production line in case of any abnormality and, along with their supervisor, suggest an improvement to resolve the abnormality which may initiate a kaizen.

The PDCA cycles[7]

The cycle of kaizen activity can be defined as:

  • Standardize an operation and activities.
  • Measure the standardized operation (find cycle time and amount of in-process inventory)
  • Gauge measurements against requirements
  • Innovate to meet requirements and increase productivity
  • Standardize the new, improved operations
  • Continue cycle ad infinitum

This is also known as the Shewhart cycle, Deming cycle, or PDCA. Other techniques used in conjunction with PDCA include 5 Whys, which is a form of root cause analysis in which the user asks “why” to a problem and its answer five successive times. There are normally a series of root causes stemming from one problem,[8] and they can be visualized using fishbone diagrams or tables.

Masaaki Imai made the term famous in his book Kaizen: The Key to Japan’s Competitive Success.

Apart from business applications of the method, both Anthony Robbins and Robert Maurer, PhD[9] have popularized the kaizen principles into personal development principles. In his book,One Small Step Can Change Your life: The Kaizen Way and his eight CD set, The Kaizen Way to Success, Dr. Maurer looks at both personal and professional success using the kaizen approach.[10]

In their book The Toyota Way Fieldbook, Jeffrey Liker, and David Meier discuss the kaizen blitz and kaizen burst (or kaizen event) approaches to continuous improvement. A kaizen blitz, or rapid improvement, is a focused activity on a particular process or activity. The basic concept is to identify and quickly remove waste. Another approach is that of the kaizen burst, a specific kaizen activity on a particular process in the value stream.[11]

WebKaizen Events, written by Kate Cornell, condenses the philosophies of kaizen events into a one-day, problem solving method that leads to prioritized solutions. This method combines Kaizen Event tools with PMP concepts. It introduces the Focused Affinity Matrix and the Cascading Impact Analysis. The Impact/Constraint Diagram and the Dual Constraint Diagram are tools used in this method.[12]

Key elements of kaizen are quality, effort, involvement of all employees, willingness to change, and communication.

The five main elements of kaizen

  • Teamwork
  • Personal discipline
  • Improved morale
  • Quality circles
  • Suggestions for improvement

See also

  • 5S
  • Business process reengineering
  • Mottainai
  • Muda
  • Overall equipment effectiveness
  • Root cause analysis
  • Scrum
  • Six Sigma
  • Statistical process control
  • Theory of Constraints
  • Total productive maintenance
  • TRIZ
  • Kanban
  • Visual Control
  • Learning-by-doing
  • Quality circle

Chương Trình Huấn Luyện Nhận Thức – Kỹ Thuật – Thực Hành Kaizen


Với mục tiêu kết nối thông tin và tăng khả năng làm việc nhóm đồng thời tạo môi trường thân thiện giữa các thành viên trong Công ty, đối tương tham gia chương trình đồng thời đến từ tất cả các phòng/ bộ phận từ Lãnh đạo cấp cao, cấp trung, quản đốc/ tổ trưởng và người thao tác/ vận hành trong Công ty.

Lớp huấn luyện được chia ra thành các nhóm, mỗi nhóm lựa chọn các chủ đề, trình bày nội dung, chia sẻ cá nhân, thuyết trình cá nhân/ đội nhóm, mô phỏng qua trò chơi và đánh giá hiện trường kết hợp hoạt động thực tế và lý thuyết, kiểm tra cuối khóa, và trao bằng chứng nhận tham dự.

Lớp huấn luyện được tổ chức không nhất thiết là liên tục, mà nên bố trí cách tuần, thực hiện 1-2 ngày huấn luyện/tuần. Nhằm nâng cao khả năng tiếp thu và học viên có thời gian để xem xét, thu thập số liệu, các ý tưởng cải tiến và triển khai nó.


Chi tiết chương trình Click vào link sau:

Học phần

Nội dung chương trình

Thời gian

I. Nhận thức Kaizen

Giới thiệu chung về Kaizen

–          So sánh Kaizen và các phương pháp khác

–          Tư duy Lean/ Lean Thinking: Một sự thay đổi mô hình và cách thức mới của doanh nghiệp trong suy nghĩ

Ngày I, buổi sáng

8:30 am – 12:00 pm

–          Kaizen với Quản lý chất lượng
–          Giải quyết nhanh vấn đề với Kaizen
–          Phương pháp và lộ trình triển khai Kaizen

Ngày I, buổi chiều

1:30 am – 4:30 pm

–          Quản lý thay đổi và các nhóm Kaizen
–          Nền tảng giải kỹ thuật giải quyết vấn đề của các nhóm Kaizen

II. Kỹ thuật Kaizen

Các công cụ cải tiến thường áp dụng trong Kaizen

Ngày II, buổi sáng

8:30 am – 12:00 pm

–          Sáng kiến cải tiến, Thực hành tốt nhất
–          5 S và Quản lý trực quan
–          7 Công cụ QC và 7 công cụ QC mới

Ngày II, buổi chiều

1:30 am – 4:30 pm

–          *NewValue Stream Mapping (VSM) và Process Flow Analysis với Kaizen

Ngày III, buổi sáng

8:30 am – 12:00 pm

–          Sự kiện Kaizen Event

Ngày III, buổi chiều

1:30 am – 4:30 pm

–          Kaizen Blitz
–          Vòng tròn PDCA và Tiêu chuẩn hóa Standardization

III. Thực hành Kaizen

Ví dụ minh họa/ Kaizen Samples

Ngày IV, buổi sáng

8:30 am – 12:00 pm

Hướng dẫn thực tế / Kaizen Workshop Step by Step
Sử dung Form A 3 theo TPS Kaizen để trình bày

A3 Report and Presentation

Khuyến khích và động viên / Kaizen Promotion and Motivation

Ngày IV, buổi chiều

1:30 am – 4:30 pm

Phân tích chi phí và lợi ích các dự án cải tiến Kaizen/ Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Kaizen Project
Conclusion, Q&A, Examination and Certificated